Impact of Self-Efficacy on Employee’s Job Performance in Health Sector of Pakistan
Muhammad Salman1, *, Mula Nazar Khan1, Umer Draz1,
Muhammad Javaid Iqbal1, Kamran Aslam2
1Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
Employee’s cognitive behaviour has strongly influence on employee performance. In current study basic purpose is to investigate the relationship between employee cognitive behaviour and job performance in Health Sector of Pakistan. Self-efficacy was selected as cognitive behaviour with different dimensions like past experience, modelling and emotional cues. Data was collected through self-administrative questionnaire from public hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. Results are exploited thorough Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 16. Data fulfill the normality and all the variables are correlated. The current study finding indicates that self-efficacy has strongly relationship with job performance factors like job commitment, job satisfaction and absenteeism. Particle implication of the study is that the equally importance to develop a reward system, new policies and modelling in public hospital. Limitation and future recommendation were also discussed for future researcher at the end.
Self – Efficacy (SE), Job Performance (JP), Job Commitment (JC), Job Satisfaction (JS) Absenteeism
Received: June 14, 2016
Accepted: June 27, 2016
Published online: July 27, 2016
@ 2016 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Skilled, professional, committed and efficient workers play vital role in achieving the goals of an organization. Workforce is long lasting and very important asset of any organization as it manages other assets and activities of the organization. In order to motivate employees for better performance the employers give certain incentives and benefits (Hameed & Waheed, 2011; Ouweneel, Le Blanc, & Schaufeli, 2013).
In developed countries employees perform better as they are treated and given wages according to international standards. But in developing countries there has been always a problem of employee dissatisfaction and employee turnover due to lack of interest of the employer in employees. The public sector of Pakistan is facing such problems. Job performance of employees especially in public sector like hospitals has always been questionable. Mostly the workforce is not satisfied with its job. The behaviour of the employees regarding their duties has been causing the decline in the progress and reputation of the hospitals (Khan, Iqbal, & Waseem, 2012). Due to irritating attitude of the employees of public hospitals people prefer private hospitals for their better treatment. In public hospital there are teaching hospitals attached with, so most of the specialist doctors keep themselves busy in teaching and training activities having no spare time for the core function and for the treatment of the patients. Whereas in the private hospitals there has been sufficient staff always available to treat patients consciously giving them better environment (Irfan & Ijaz, 2011; Saeed & Ibrahim, 2005). Another reason for the burden and stress of work in public hospitals is the admission of large number of patients belonging to lower class. As government hospitals provide free of cost treatment to the patients, so the people unable to afford private hospitals come to public hospitals for their treatment. This never ending rush in the public hospitals causes mental stress and dissatisfaction of the employees leading them towards rude and irritating behavior with the patients (Jehangir, Kareem, Khan, Jan, & Soherwardi, 2011; Naz, Daraz, Khan, Khan, & Hussain, 2012) According to (Irfan, Ijaz, Kee, & Awan, 2012), it is the basic responsibility of the employers to take initiatives and follow different strategies to enhance the service quality in the hospitals. There are different techniques available but total quality management can prove more beneficial in the context. The performance appraisal and accountability is also very low in public sector hospitals of Pakistan. There should be well approved performance check and evaluation methods to enhance the performance of the employees for better results (Riaz, Ayaz, Wain, & Sajid, 2012). For instance in Mayo hospital, a large number of patients are admitted making rush in it. The doctors pay less attention and patients are ignored and are not treated well. Doctors do not listen to the problems of the patients. All these things prove to have high stress level and job dissatisfaction among doctors (Ahmed, Qureshi, & Anwar, 2012). In order to gain the trust of the general public and enhance the share of profit in the national income, Pakistan needs to focus on workforce of public hospitals. If employees are satisfied then they can enhance efficiency and effectiveness of hospitals. For this purpose (Haroon, Fakhar Zaman, & Rehman, 2012) investigated that the middle and top management of public sector hospitals can boost service quality of the hospitals and positive citizenship behavior by following Islamic practices.
The current study focuses on the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance of employees of public hospitals. An attempt is also made to clarify the effect of self-efficacy on behavior and efficiency of the employees.
1.1. Problem Definition
People come to hospitals for the treatment of their health related problems. These problems may vary from physical injury or disease to mental issues. It is the basic responsibility of the hospitals to admit each patient and cure him and look after him during treatment. Well educated and well skilled staff can take care of the patients in appropriate way. Moreover the doctors must be highly skilled and trained so as to save the lives of the others. Another essential thing needed in public hospitals is the positive and friendly behavior of the doctors with the patients. The employees are expected to behave in a very polite manner as these public hospitals are funded by the government with funds collected from general public. The concept of organizational performance says that performance of organization is based on performance of the employees. If employees are satisfied and perform well then the organization will outperform accordingly. Due to this reason the organizations are trying to find such factors that may enhance the performance of the employees. It is common practice in Pakistani public hospitals that the staff does not perform well and show rude behavior. This is the reason that general public is losing their trust on public hospitals and are moving to private hospitals where they are treated in efficient way. The objective of the current study is to explore the factors that can positively affect the performance of employees in the public hospitals. Self-efficacy being important factor has been checked if it has positive effect on job performance of employees.
1.2. Objectives of Study
1) To identify the relationship of self-efficacy and job performance of employees in public hospitals.
2) To identify the effects of self-efficacy on the job commitment of employees public hospitals.
3) To identify the effects of self-efficacy on the job satisfaction of employees in public hospitals.
4) To identify the effects of self-efficacy on absenteeism and turnover of employees in public hospital
2. Literature Review
2.1. Job Performance
The performance of an individual plays pivotal role in an organization. His performance is important for himself as well. High performance of an individual brings self-efficacy, satisfaction and motivation in his career (Arvey & Murphy, 1998; Sonnentag, Volmer, & Spychala, 2008). The concept of performance is very wide and it is further divided into several dimensions. Behavior aspect and outcome aspect of an employee are important in this context. In behavior aspect it is observed that how an employee behave on the workplace, how he deals with the customers, colleagues and his bosses. The behavior is judged with job requirements. An individual is non beneficial for the organization if his behavior is against the requirements of the job (HANIF, 2004). Outcomes of the organization is basically the result of performance of the employees of that organization. Good behavior of the employees can enhance sales of the product and services, increase customer loyalty and promotion of the individual himself. An outcome of the organization is not only affected by the behavior of employees but there are other several determinants as well. For example a professor deliver an excellent lecture in good environment and in a frank manner but the students did not follow him as they should (Sonnentag et al., 2008).
2.2. Task Performance
Task is any assignment given to an employee in an organization and task performance is related to work which is beneficial and reward able for the organization (Schyns & Sczesny, 2010). Self-efficacy of the employees will be low when they are assigned any important task in a group form on the other hand self-efficacy will be higher if they are assigned with low priority task (Katz- Navon & Erez, 2005). Humain cannot compete with the accuracy and consistency of a machine but with passage of time they may learn skills which refine them and they can produce outstanding results (Abbas & Yaqoob, 2009). When experience increases the accuracy of the work done by the employees increases and variability decreases. Employees can learn many thing through other channels such as short courses, workshops and trainings (Abbas & Yaqoob, 2009). There are two stages of an employee regarding his performance, the transitional stage and maintenance stage. In the first stage employee is new so the tasks assigned to him are relatively easy that he can complete with little effort using his cognitive ability. The other stage is maintenance stage in which employees are skilled and trained and they are assigned with complex tasks. In the second stage the interest and motivation level of the employees should be higher (Sonnentag et al., 2008).
2.3. Job Commitment
Job commitment or organizational commitment is the term used for an employee when he performs above average and contribute to the outcomes of the organization (Hurter, 2008). Job commitment may be due to long term relation with organization and dedication of the employee for specific organization. It may be due to the possibility that employee is not as skilled as to join some other organization. Many organizations recognize the work done by the employees to boost their morale at the workplace (Tella, Ayeni, & Popoola, 2007). Workforce can be managed using one of two approaches, the control approach and commitment approach (Verheul, 2007). In control strategy employees are given targets and deadlines to complete different tasks. If any employee outperform he is awarded accordingly. Rules and regulations are imposed on the employees in this strategy (Verheul, 2007). In commitment strategy psychological factors play key role in creating a relationship between employees and organization. The employees are given value and have say in the management decisions. The current study focuses on committed employees and level of efficiency in the work done by them (Toth, 2012). Researchers have proposed different ways through which commitment of the employees can be enhanced.
(I) Commitment based on Reciprocity:
Many organizations point out top performing employees and train them to lead and manage the undertakings of the organization. It offers them special benefits and rewards so that they may work efficiently. This develops a type of commitment in the employees to work for specific organization (Vance, 2006).
(II) Commitment based on Responsibility:
Sometimes organizations assign special managerial responsibilities and tasks to well performing workers who are not actual managers. So the employees show their loyalty towards organization and stay committed (khanifar, Hajlou, Abdolhosseini, Ataei, & Soltani, 2012).
(III) Commitment Based on Social Identity:
Employees are identified in the society according to their job and the organization they work with. Moreover employees share their expressions and experiences with their colleagues and bosses who bond them in a relationship in which everyone is given respect and social value. This type of commitment is considered most powerful for the organization (Postmes, Tanis, & De Wit, 2001).
2.4. Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is defined is the behavior of employees toward organization. The relationship of of job performance and satisfaction is complex (M. D. Jones, 2006). According to (Chowdhury & Lanis, 1999) job satisfaction is pleaser after completion the work. Job satisfaction has assessment component means overall employees’ job interest, experience in organization (Salleh, Nair, & Harun, 2012). Cognitive component is the positive behavior of employees (Tekell, 2008).
Failure of employees to get to work and report while they have to report as per scheduled is known as absenteeism. The employees enjoying holidays and vacations or other types of holidays with the permission of organization is not included in the definition of absenteeism. In simple words, unscheduled, unauthorized leave or absence is called absenteeism (Mogobe, 2011). Most difficult work for the supervisors is to manage the attendance of the employees. To reduce the absenteeism in an organization is an international phenomenon now a day. Cost of absent employees is higher as compared to their wages and incentives that company pay them in working time. Reason behind heavy cost of absenteeism is that company have to train the employees to work at the levels of absent employees, production could be lost by absence of employees. By reducing the production, moral of an organization also decrease on the other hand it decreases the revenue of organization that is a big loss (Khare & Chaudhary, 2013). Causes of Employees Absenteeism: It is not necessary that employee remain absent because he don’t want to work or he is lazy. There are many reasons of absenteeism (Kgaphola, 2010). Bad condition to work a specified work (Lalić & Hromin, 2012). Employee is not physically fit (Lalić & Hromin, 2012). Company is not providing transport or the employee belongs to that area where there is a problem related to transportation. Work stress, stress of repeat work, and stress of work load or responsibilities (Lalić & Hromin, 2012).
An employee’s self-belief or self-efficacy is associated with the performance of employee at workplace (Lev & Kieslowski, 2009). It influences the work stress of employee by performing regular tasks or duties in an organization. As managers are always keen to know the effects of self-efficacy on performance and behavior of employees, it is correlated with the job performance of employees at workplace so (Chaudhary, Rangnekar, & Barua, 2012). Self-belief influences the goal setting and selecting for him to perform in the organization. That shows their commitment and motivation toward the work. Those employees who believe in themselves and their self-efficacy choose difficult tasks as compared to those who are less affected by self believe (Chaudhary et al., 2012).Employee learns new skills, perform well in the organizations and provide his efforts as per his self-efficacy beliefs. All those employees who are self-efficacy affected and they have high self-belief are always ready to learn new concepts and ideas and skills as well. They perform extra ordinary in the organization and provide their best at workplace (Lunenburg, 2011). Employees Approaches to Work Related Tasks: Employees with Higher Self-efficacy (Cherian & Jacob, 2013): They accept difficult tasks to get more knowledge and to be mastered. They connect themselves with their tasks deeply. They think that they cannot perform difficult tasks and they take them as a threat. Stress and failure affect their performance negatively (Chelariu & Stump, 2011).
Social Cognitive TheorySocial cognitive theory of Albert Bandura explained how the behavioral, environmental and personal factors affect the motivation and workplace performance (Cherian & Jacob, 2013). Most of the factors affect the performance at specific time on of them may affect more than other factor (Pepe, Farnese, Avalone, & Vecchione, 2010). For example, in some employees environmental factors may affect their performance more than behavioral and personal factor and vice versa. It could be said that their strength is not equal and they may or may not affect at the same time (Redmond & Rivera, 2013). Self-efficacy: Self efficacy is the last stage of goal attainment. It is a belief of an employee that he can complete the task assigned to him. It provides motivation to the employee to work toward and achieve the goal. It can be refer as a capability of employee to perform a challenging task or job. Performance of employee in a task provides self-confidence and motivation and it also increases the effort of employee to complete the task (Heslin&Klehe, 2006).
(I) Modeling: Creating a model or selection of model for employee’s own performance is another way of increasing self-efficacy. In this source one employee compare his performance with the performance of another employee who is good at work place in the organization and the employee is also job fellow (Tschannen- Moran & McMaster, 2009). Whenever first employee accomplishes his task, he compares himself with his model employee. This process increases his self-efficacy and motivates him to perform better and better. Success or failure of model affects the performance of employee. If the employee who is selected as model succeeds the self-efficacy of employee following him will increase. But if the model failed the self-efficacy of employee who is following will become low (Lewis et al., 2007).
In above diagram the self-efficacy is the independent. The employee performance is the dependent variable with three factors job satisfaction, job commitment and job absenteeism.
3.1. Hypothesis of the Study
H1: There is positive significant relationship between self-efficacy and employee’s commitment to his job in public hospital.
H2: There is positive significant relationship between self-efficacy and employee’s satisfaction to his job in public hospital.
H3: There is positive significant relationship between self-efficacy and employee’s absenteeism in public hospital.
3.2. Target Population & Sample Size
In current study employee of public hospitals are considered as a population. According to the Bureau of Statistics there are 46 hospitals are working under federal and provincial government of Lahore, Pakistan. On the basis of patient rush, the sample size are collected from below rishi hospitals.
1. Ganga Ram Hospital
2. Service Institute of Medical Sciences
3. Sheikh Ziad Hospital
4. Jinnah Hospital
5. Institute of Cardiology
Data are collected from doctors, nurses, paramedical staff and workers. 420 questionnaires were distributed and 340 are fully filled and used for analysis. The response rate is 80.9%.
3.3. Research Design
In current study researcher test the cause and effect of self-efficacy on job performance factors. A current study was done in a natural environment without researcher interference. This study is cross sectional in nature. Unit of analysis is individual.
3.4. Instrument Development
Questionnaire adaptation was used in current study. Questionnaire is comprises into tow section. In first section consist of demographics and section is based on 25 items. Five point Likert Scale was used to develop the questionnaire.
3.5. Procedural and Statistical Methods
In current study results are produced with SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The descriptive, reliability, correlation and regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis.
4. Results and Finding
4.1. Descriptive Statistics
In current study out of 340 questionnaires 204 are male respondents and 136 are female. In current study the 155 respondents are married and 184 respondents are single. Majority of the respondent’s age is between 25 to 30 years which is 40% of the total sample size. The age between 20 to 25 years is 17.3%. The respondents lies in the age 30 t0 35 is 10%. The other respondents are is above 35 years. The working experience of the respondents is below 5 years which is 72.4%. The working experience between 5 to 10 years 11.7%. There are few employees have above 10 to 15 years which is 3.8% remaining have above 15 year experience. In current study doctors contribution is 44%. The nursing staff is participated 23%. Para-medical and worker are contributed 33% in this study.
In Table 1 mean of past experience is 2.4, modeling is 2.8, emotional cues is 3.1, job satisfaction is 3.4, job commitment is 2.9 and absenteeism is 2.10. Standard deviation is 0.983, 0.473, 0.324, 0.783, 0.842, and 0.903 past experience, modeling, emotional cues, job satisfaction, job commitment and absenteeism respectively. The values of Skewness and kurtosis are lies between -1 to +1 and -3 to +3 respectively. In above table the values of Skewness and kurtosis are shown that data of current study is normality distributed.
4.2. Reliability Analysis
In Table 2 reliability of factors and overall reliability is 0.79 shown. Factors wise reliability is 0.67, 0.73, 0.78, 0.82, 0.65, 0.71, for past experience, modeling, emotional cues, job satisfaction, job commitment and absenteeism respectively.
4.3. Correlation Analysis
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level of significant
In Table 3 all the values of person correlation shows that all the variables are positively correlated with each other. In on the basis of above table we conclude that the variables and developed model means self-efficacy with dimensions (past experience, modeling, emotional cues) with job performance factors (job satisfaction, job commitment, and absenteeism) are strongly significant with each other.
4.4. Regression Analysis
4.5. Hypothesis Testing
In first hypothesis, self-efficacy has a positive relationship with job satisfaction. The p value is 0.000>5 level of significant with R square is 0.071 and beta value is.263. So researcher concludes that there is positive association between self- efficacy and job satisfaction.
In second hypothesis, self-efficacy has a positive relationship with job commitment. The p value is 0.000>5 level of significant with R square is 0.154 and beta value is .52. So, researcher concludes that there is a positive significant correlation between self-efficacy and job commitment.
In 3rd hypothesis of the study, self-efficacy has a positive relationship with absenteeism. The p value is 0.000>5 level of significant with R square is 0.420 and beta value is.61. So, researcher concludes that there is a positive association between self-efficacy and absenteeism at work place.
We reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis which means that there is a positive association between self-efficacy and absenteeism at workplace.
5. Conclusion and Future Recommendation
This study investigates the direct effect of self-efficacy on employee’s performance. Employee’s performance is measure by job satisfaction, job commitment and absenteeism in public hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. The results indicate that self-efficacy has significant relationship with job performance factors. Employees are more commitment at work place with no absenteeism at public hospitals. The relationship of self-efficacy with job commitment, job satisfaction and absenteeism at P=0.000>5 have positive significant relationship. Study results reveals that self-efficacy at each stage is low among all employees either, doctors, nurses, pharmacist and worker because they feel shyness and hesitate not become a role model for other because they are not trained and motivated by the seniors and supervisor. As for practical implication is concerns the results of this study suggest that the management and government in Public Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan should encourage and motivate the employee to boost up the confidence. Management should also develop a proper reward system to increase the self-confidence.
Future researcher also identifies relationship in private sector and also makes a comparative study both public and private hospitals. Future researcher also investigates the other dimensions of self-efficacy which are self-esteem, neuroticism.