Relationship Between JOB Performance, JOB Involvement and Career Salience of Employees in Education Sector of Pakistan
Rizwan Qaiser Danish1, *, Ahmad Usman Shahid1, Nauman Aslam1, Mariam Afzal2, Hafiz Yasir Ali3
1Hailey College of Commerce, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Institute of Business & Finance, National University of Modern Language, Lahore, Pakistan
3Hailey College of Commerce, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
The purpose of this paper is to explore the behaviour of the employees and organizational performance on employee’s job involvement and career salience through proper coordination and comfortable ecological situation in work place. Questionnaires were personally administered for data collection purposes using random sampling technique, 235 questionnaires were distributed and 205 were completely filled producing the response rate of 91%. We use statistical techniques through SPSS and the statistical tools which used in research are reliability and correlation analysis and then testing of hypotheses. The hypothetical sense of career salience is not satisfactory. The nature of data is primary and has been collected from capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The results reflect that there is a significant direct and positive relationship between independent variables and dependent variable.
Job Involvement, Career Salience, Organizational Performance
Received: April 10, 2015 / Accepted: April 30, 2015 / Published online: May 15, 2015
@ 2015 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
The world is looking forward to enhance performance in organizations, which would give high job satisfaction to their employees and would also treasure excellence and efficiency. Employees are a back bone of any organization and play a vital role in the success of organization. Now organizations use the dissimilar types of methods to stimulate the employees to do work as well for the organization. Organization provides a lot of facilities to employees to do work in easy and productive way. Many organizations offer special type of bonus to employees so that employees perform work on time and show more interest and involvement in organizational activities. An employee who performs duties with full honesty resultantly keeps some positive feelings for his co-workers. Organization perform task both in private and public sector and Some time employees are not honest with organization and give preference to his personal feelings and they do not like to know information about organization like basic problems, its causes and effects and solutions. Career salience associated with the reasonable cost of work and career of an individual’s complete life which resultantly affects the performance of employees. For an organization, it is a life blood that its employees get involved in the overall performance of the organization and resultantly make them enable to grow successfully in that organization making their future more progressive. Career salience and job involvement are associated with the extra role and in role behavior and task performance of employees; if employees are involved in the better performance of the organization then organization will also reward them with a promising and a bright future.
2. Literature Review
The purpose of this study was to check the performance of employees which defined the organizational performance and job involvement related to benefit of the organization (Lambert, S.J., 2006,). The organizational performance increased when employees perform work with proper attention and get more output as compare to standard output. When organization offer best opportunities in the form of increased salaries; bonus; residence facilities and medical facilities etc. they feels better and feel satisfaction about his career and performed work in best interest of organization. Same results were made by assessment among government segment and private segment organizations. Johnsrud & Rosser (1999) conducted study on middle level managers and witnessed that awareness of acknowledgment, mobility, favoritism, and outside associations, were the best descriptive variables of job satisfaction. Johnsrud & Rosser (1999) establish that organizational, ecological, and special character proved to be less significant than features such as cooperation, job security, and interpersonal connection. They concluded that ‘‘general satisfaction is the creation of a composite steadiness of many ingredients’’.
Sonmezer and Eryaman, tested a fundamental model amongst employees at special stages of occupation expansion and originate that satisfaction with salary, total work hours, and co-workers support affected the level of pressure and eventually satisfaction. According to Sonmezer and Eryaman, (2008) Salary, social status, progression, ability utilization, administrative-employee relationship, creativity, security are the main factors that conclude organization behavior between government and private sector employees. Researchers claim that the four categories of behavior describe employees' overall job performances which are citizenship behavior, core task performance, innovative work behavior and counterproductive work behavior (Rotundo & Sackett, 2002; Welbourne et al., 1998). Job Performance is the capacity to perform perfectly in our employment that we have comprehended a far reaching clarification of our occupation assignment and to perform as indicated by settled models and strategies. Citizenship behavior refers to those behaviors in which employees are engaged besides their over and above their essential job requirements, which dynamically encourage and reinforce the organization's efficiency and overall performance (Hunt, 1996; Organ, 1988). Job performance is past the standard measures of employment execution yet holds certification that long haul hierarchical achievement in accepting theoretical thought as the test of overall rivalry highlights the noteworthiness of authoritative yield, adaptability and openness to adjust open air circumstances. Central task performance refers to the accomplishment of the basic compulsory responsibilities of a specific job and it is that kind of job performance which has been most recurrently observed in preceding investigation on this topic (e.g., Gordon & Fitzgibbons, 1982; Jacobs et al., 1990; Medoff & Abraham, 1980, 1981). Creativity and innovative behavior refers to the creation of innovative concepts and the broadcasting and application of those thoughts at the workplace (Janssen, 2001). Counterproductive work behavior refers to those actions by employees, such as stealing or industrial damage, which deliberately damage the welfare of the institute (Bennett & Robinson, 2000).
The term of job involvement (JI) can be described as "the degree to which one is cognitively preoccupied with, engaged in and concerned with one’s present job" (Paullay, Alliger & Stone Romero, 1994). Job Involvement is among the most contemplated studied area in authoritative conduct and human asset administration research. Job involvement can be described as a behavior in the employee that associate him to job responsibilities and personal existence leads to occupied performance. Many consequences are constantly related to job involvement including job stress, job effort and performance, absenteeism, health complaints, life satisfaction and job turnover. Previous researches proposed that job involvement is a psychological faith or confidence of his identity with the job. Job involvement is the extent to which an employee is associated with the work and remains enthusiastic about work activities. Generally business administrators know that the efforts should be made to develop and enhance the feeling of job involvement among employees and resultantly it will benefit the organization in future for its performance. Job involvement is the cognitive level due to which one takes part well in his job and for the wellbeing of one’s organization too. Researchers proposed that high job involvement is related to better work performance. Job involvement has been playing an important role in influencing the interrelated conflict of interest by implementing role specification criteria and concentration on the job descriptions. There exist some sort of risk and worry for employees because sometimes proper identification of task creates problems. Brown, (1996) proposed that job involvement is highly associated with demography of employees working in an organization. Job involvement not only affects the commitment of employees to be a part of an organization but its adverse dimension may cause them to leave in severe circumstances. Blau, (1985) reported that job involvement empower the employees to makes decisions which act as the pillar for developing their commitment towards job. Job involvement concentrates on the creative task performing ability of the employee by its subjective assessment. Ohly, (2006) reported that job involvement is the base factor to get constructive outcomes as it is highly associated with creativity and better task performance. Langfred & Moye, (2004) proposed that job involvement is associated with job autonomy because it provides a sense of belongingness, trust and support which is necessary for high quality relationship in performing jobs.
Savickas, (2001) proposed that the career salience is professional will and distinction of role occupation which is connected to the job-related importance and other connections of life. Career salience is associated with the comparative value of work and career in an individual complete life. Career salience is dependent on many aspects such as sociological, monetary, scholastic or cost-effective aspects. Career salience is affected by many socio psychological features and these characteristics differ from person to person. Betz, (1987) describe these individualities as temperament, attitude, values, self-esteem and interests of an individual. Individual purpose, assertiveness, favorites, obligation and ethics which upset career salience are the noteworthy mark of personal benefits and objectives. Masih, (1967) proposed that career salience is the gradation that demonstrates an individual’s level of consideration in callous profession, distinction in career for satisfaction and extent of discrepancy that is allocated to profession as a feature of satisfaction among other essentials of satisfaction. Greenhaus, (1971) revealed the perception of career salience besides career commitment and he characterized that both are recognized as one’s importance to career and effort in one’s entire life time. In order to further explain the conception of career salience it is characterized into three aspects which are comparative significance to work and career, whole assertiveness towards work and apprehension for planning and development. Kiyani et al, (2011) indicated the significantly positive relationship between job involvement and career salience. Previous researches proposed that career salience is the worth of work and career and progress in one’s life and researches also proposed that there exist strong association between job performance, job involvement and career salience. Career salience is necessary for employees so that they can perform well within the organization and resultantly it will glow their career and enhance their understanding and involvement with the job. Situational variables like demographics have regularly been essentially identified with profession notability and career salience.
3. Hypotheses Development
To validate the research hypotheses, the research methodology is given here under and also explained in figure 1.0.
H 1: There exists a relationship between Job Performance and Job involvement.
H 2: There exists a relationship between Job Performance and Career Salience.
4. Research Methodology
The data was collected from the employees including private and public sector organizations and educational institutions and hotel industry of Lahore. We used Random sampling technique. Out of 235 administered questionnaires only 215 questionnaires were collected personally to respondents. Out of which 206 were properly filled and useful for analysis. Response rate was 91% and Usable response rate was 87.65%. This study is based on primary data and the questionnaire was based on all the elements of job involvement, career salience and organizational performance. Five point Likert scale was used ranging from "1" Strongly Disagree to "5" strongly Agree. Personal demographic information was also collect in this analysis. We use statistical techniques through SPSS. The statistical tools which used in research are frequency, mean& standard deviation, reliability and correlation analysis and then testing of hypothesis. This technique has become standard in the literature in the past few years.
|Reliability α||Job involvement||Career Salience||Organizational performance||Mean||Standard Deviation|
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Results show that there exist a correlation between these variables and they are correlated whether negatively and positively. Job involvement and career salience are in negative correlation with each other which shows that if there will be careers salience then employees will be less involved in their jobs. On the other hand, there exist positive correlation between organizational performance and job involvement which means that if employees will be involved in their jobs then their job performance will be satisfactory and will be better for the overall organizational performance of the organization. Similarly there exit positive association between organizational performance and career salience which mean that performance will enhance if employees will be satisfied with their career.
Table1.0 indicates the reliability coefficients and Pearson correlation statistics of independents and dependent variables. The correlation matrix shows that there is a highly negative association between job involvement and career salience but a positive correlation with organizational performance. The relationship between job involvement, career salience and job performance is the subject matter which the scholars are concerned in the long history. Committed workers are satisfied to be a part of the association and feels for the wellbeing of the association. It is found that organizational affective commitment has a moderately positive impact on job involvement and career salience of employees. It is approved that if an employee demonstrate involvement towards job then he performs in a positive manner and performs his job duties in a proper way. Thus it is approved that job involvement and career salience of employees improves their behavior and performance. Employees are always keen to improve their overall performance for improving the performance of their organization, they think and work for the development of organization. The results show that there exists full correlation among the variables in our study. Researches proposed that if employees are highly committed and involved in job then they can perform well and can excel in their future career. Mean values and standard deviation for job involvement, career salience and organizational performance are also measured in which organizational performance have higher value of mean, while career salience has lower value, similarly highest and lowest values of these variables for standard deviation are also mentioned in the table.
This study is an attempt to find the relationship between organizational performance, Job involvement and career salience of employees in education sector of Pakistan. Some important findings of the study are that organizational performance moderately correlates with job involvement and career salience. The employees having involvement within the organization not only performs well according to their job description. Organizations create strategies due to lack of employee’s involvement to enhance their performance. Employees struggle when their organization appreciate their work, reward them, respect them and consider them as a vital part of the organization. Comparable to further studies, this research has its limitations; the supreme constraint is the absence of collaboration by the subdivisions of companies with the researcher because of insufficient understanding about the terminologies. One more limitations of the study is that it captures only employees of one city and it could not be carried out on the employees belonging to other sectors as well.
8. Directions for Future Research
This study provides an integrated model to understand and better explain the relationships between organizational performance, Job involvement and career salience of employees in education sector of Pakistan. Hope so, this research study will stimulate the researchers to begin to think deliberately about how the job performance relates to job involvement and how the organizational performance helps to contribute into the enhancement of career salience of employees working in the organizations. In the 21st century it is very important for the organizations that they must develop such strategies that help them to make employees committed to the organizations. This study may provide the managers for creating a sense of belongingness to the organization so that they can remain attached with the organization, they will be able to perform in a good way for the organization and consequently they will get extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for their efforts and a well-developed and bright career too.
9. Limitations of the Study
This study has some limitations that data is collected from only one city and it cannot be generalized to all over the Pakistan. The major limitation of this study is the non-supportive behaviour of employees and not proper understanding about the terms; there for 100 % desired results could not be achieved.