Advances in Applied Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 2, October 2015 Publish Date: Aug. 24, 2015 Pages: 145-154

Work-Family Role Conflict and Absenteeism Among the Dyad

John N. N. Ugoani*

College of Management and Social Sciences, Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria


The study was designed to explore the degree of relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism among the dyad. Quantitative method was used for the investigation. A survey questionnaire based on the Likert Scale served to collect data regarding the perceptions of 300 participants from six different occupations on issues such as work demands, family demands, social demands, job knowledge, among others. Chi-square statistical method was employed to check the relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism. With a Chi-square value of 20.47 against the table value of 9.48 at 0.05 level of significance, and with 4 degrees of freedom, this study found strong positive relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism.


Spillover, Compensation, Segmentation, Work-Family Role Conflict, Absenteeism, Dyad

1. Introduction

A major issue related to dual-career partnerships or parents that is increasingly faced throughout the career cycle, but frequently noticed at the advancement stage is the conflicts that arise between work and family life. Experiencing a great deal of work-home conflict negatively affects an individual’s overall quality of life. Work-home conflicts can lead to emotional exhaustion. Dealing with multiple tasks at work and the inability to cope well with such tasks can magnify negative events at home and vice versa. Responsibilities at home can clash with responsibilities at work, and conflict researchers have further narrowed down work-home conflict into work-family conflict in which work interferes with family, versus family-work conflict in which family orhome life interferes with work. According to Nelson and Quick (2003) cultural differences, arise in these types of conflicts. They state that one study shows that while Americans experience more family-work conflict, Chinese experience more work-family conflict. Hammer and Thompson (2003) posit that work-family conflict is a type of interrole conflict in which the role demands stemming from one domain (work or family) are incompatible with role demands stemming from another domain (family or work). They assert that roles are the result of expectations of others about appropriate behaviors in a particular position. They believe that role conflict is a psychological tension that is aroused by conflicting role pressures, and role theory suggests that conflict occurs when individuals engage in multiple roles that are incompatible, and that work family role conflict is bi-directional. This nature of bi-directionality suggests thatwork can interfere with family (referred to as work-to-family conflict) and family can interfere with work (referred to as family-to-work conflict). There is empirical evidence to show that work-to-family conflict is primarily caused by work-related stressors and characteristics that predicts family-related affective and behavioural outcomes, while family-to-work conflict is caused by family-related stressors and characteristics and predicts work-related outcomes (Frone, et al, 1997). Today, more and more employees are struggling with multiple roles such as: employees, parents, students, caretaker of dependant relatives, among others. Hammer and Thompson (2003) suggest that high levels of work-family conflict are related to dysfunctional outcomes for the individual, such as: life dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression, poor health high levels of work-family conflict lead to increased interpersonal conflict, divorce, and organizations, witness loss of talented employees, tardiness and absenteeism (Greenhaus&Beutell, 1985, Barnett, 2002, Boles, et al, 1997). Absenteeism involves the persistent absence from work, often without permission or any good reason. Absenteeism results from a combination of individual and systemic issues. While some cases of absenteeism are easily categorized as the individuals’ decisions to accept pay without providing a service, in other cases systemic problems make it difficult, if not impossible to blame only the employee for absenteeism. In systems that do not promote efficiency, honesty, family-friendily, work conditions, good working environments, the incidence of absenteeism is usually high with the consequent dysfunctional issue of low performance. Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) insist that work family conflict is a form of interrole conflict in which the role pressure from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible and linked to negative consequences such as increased turnover, decreased performance, poorer physical and mental health and increased absenteeism. Sternhagen (1972) defines absenteeism as the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work, that is, when they are actually on the payroll. According to him, throughout the world, absence from work has generally, been considered on the increase even though many companies have positive programmes attempting to control absenteeism and tardiness. He states that the percentage of employed persons absent from work on an average day due to illness has varied from country to country from a high of 5.7 percent in West Germany to a low of 1.1 percent in Canada. The incidence absence in the United States generally has ranged in the neighbourhood of 2 percent to 4 percent or more depending on the type of industry.Sternhagen (1972) posits that the problem of absenteeism is far more serious than that of tardiness although the two are inherently related since the tardiness-prone individuals are usually the same as the absence-prone individuals. Also, many instances of tardiness are simply stretched into absences by chronic absenteeism. Basically, the incidence of absenteeism increases in the situation where physical working conditions are poor. Environmental stresses or distractions such as excesses of heat, noise, fumes, inadequate light and ventilation,and unhappy work associates can significantly affect attendance to a greater degree than the attitudes toward the organization, the pay, or the work itself. Absenteeism also increases when workers have relatively poor relations with their immediate supervisors. The workers who feel that the supervisor is unfair or unfriendly tend to have poor attendance records. To reduce work family conflict and absenteeism some companies in the United States like Johnson & Johnson encourage family work friendly policies (Cook & Wall, 1980, Torrington, et al, 2005, Burley, 1989, Batt&Valcour, 2003).

1.1. Statement of the Problem

Conceptually, conflict between work and family is bidirectional. Most researchers make the distinction between what is termed work-family conflict and what is termed family-work conflict. Work-to-family conflict occurs when experiences at work interfere with family life like extensive, irregular, or inflexible work hours, work overload and other forms of job stress, interpersonal conflict at work, extensive travel, career transitions, unsupportive supervisor or organization. Family-to-work conflict occurs when experiences in the family interfere with work life like the presence of young children, primary responsibility for dependant relatives, interpersonal conflict within the family unit, unsupportive family members, among others. For example,a parent may take time off from work in order to take care of a sick child. Although these two forms of conflict-work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW) are strongly correlated with each other, more attention has been directed at WIF more than FIW. This isbecause work demands are easier to quantity,and the boundaries and responsibilities of the family role is more elastic than the boundaries and responsibilities of the work role. Also, research finds that work roles are more likely to interfere with family roles than family roles are likely to interfere with work roles. Pressure for work-family role balance originates from the changing demographic mix of the work force, ever changing social roles, the changing responsibilities of individuals, as well as the increasing numbers of people wishing to combine career with family responsibilities. Employees long hours at work increase work-family conflict and this conflict is in turn results to stress-related health problems, including absenteeism. Opposing pressures arise from engaging in multiple roles and these pressures can be in compatible by requiring different roles to compete for a person’s limited time and resources that may lead to strain, depression and eventually absence from work and vice-versa. Research provides evidence that reduced work-family role conflict is linked to increased productivity and performance, and also that employees with physical and mental struggles have less optimistic attitudes and perceptions toward many issues. Experiencing ambiguity or conflict within a role will result in an undesirable state such as absenteeism. Although precious scholars have done some work in the area of work-family conflict an update is important in the specific area of work-family role conflict and absenteeism. Madsen (2003a) suggests that work-family conflict and health are influenced or have influence on many work and nonwork factors. The study further provides support for the role conflict theory which states that experiencing ambiguity or conflict within a role will results in an undesirable state. It further explains that employees perceive themselves as having moderate to low levels of work-to-family conflict with a statistical mean (M) of 3.82 on a 7-point scale, and fairly low family-to-work conflict (M) of 2.29. For example, because of the extended family relationships in Nigeria, many working parents are finding it difficult to combine work with other family related issues like school runs, family prayers, family meetings, among others. Traditionally, it is the duty of members of a family to show interest in the wellbeing of other members. The parents ensure that both the children and other members are catered for. They must protect them and show them affection. In this process the role performance from one domain may clash with the performance of the role from the opposing domain, thus, leading inevitably to work-family role conflict. Also, the depletion argument of interrole conflict suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of two or more roles make compliance with all the role demands difficult. Work-family role conflict has been empirically related to psychological depression, physical ailment, lower life satisfaction, lower quality of family life and lower energy levels. (Boles, et al, 1998, Enser, et al, 1985, Frone, et al, 1997, Higgins, et al, 1992, Ladipo, 2012). Many researchers like Netemeyer, et al, 1996), Thomas and Ganster, (1995) emphasize that increased work-family conflict is related to increased stress and personal health problems. In furtherance to research in the work-family area, the present study was designed to explore the degree of relationship between work-family role conflict and the dyad, and to this extent, two hypotheses were formulated to achieve the objective of the study.

1.2. Hypotheses

To achieve the objective of the study, two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between work family role conflict and absenteeism.

Hi: There is significant relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism.

1.3. Objective of the Study

The study was designed to explore the degree of relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism, and its consequences on performance.

1.4. Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to Abia State, Nigeria. Abia is one of the 36 states in Nigeria and it is assumed that the opinion of the population in Abia is a good representation of the opinion of the population in Nigeria.

1.5. Significance of the Study

The study will enable students, researchers, and others interested in the areas of work-family role conflict and absenteeism appreciate their relevance in performance outcomes.

1.6. Limitations of the Study

The study was constrained by lack of research grant and current literature. However these critical limitations did not reduce the academic potency of this original study.

2. Literature Review

Work-family conflict has been related to important individual and organizational outcomes, such as absenteeism, intentions to leave work, and decreased job, family, and life satisfaction. Additionally, negative mental and physical health outcomes have been related to high levels of work-family conflict and work-to-family conflict (Frone, 2000, Frone, et al, 1997). The nature of the interface between the workplace and the family is the keystone of the work family construct. The interface can vary from positive to negative. Usually, the term work-family conflict connotes the conflict that arises when employees try to fulfill the responsibilities of roles in both domains. Although time limitations are the most common cause of work-family conflict, such conflict can also arise because of incompatibilities due to the strain, energy or behavioural requirements of different roles. With globalization, the 24/7 economy, downsizing, job insecurity, and the lengthening work week especially among highly educated workers all increase the likelihood of work-family conflict among the dyad (Kossek&Ozeki, 1998, Lambert, 1990). According to Hellriegel, et al (2001) a person has many roles in life for example, breadwinner, family member, a church volunteer to name a few, only one of which is typically associated with work. These roles may present conflicting demands that become sources of stress. Furthermore, work typically meets only some of a person’s goals and needs. Other goals and needs may conflict with career goals, presenting an additional source of stress. For example, employees’ personal desires to spend time with their families may conflict with the extra hours they must work to advance their careers, and current demographic trends, such as the increasingly large numbers of dual-career couples have brought work and family role conflicts into sharp focus. They assert that the distinction between work and non-work stressors is not always clear, but it is clear that a major source of stress for many people is conflict between work and family demands. According to them, both work and family stressors may contribute to work-family conflict because stress in one area can reduce a person’s ability to cope with stress in the other. They posit that this conflict represents a further source of stress which in turn can lead to serious problems such as depression. However, work-family conflict that leads to stress and depression has the obvious tendency of resulting to absenteeism. This can be illustrated through a psychometric model as in figure 1.

Figure 1. Work-family conflict and absenteeism model.

Source: Ugoani, 2015

The need to scrutinize the relationships among the variables of work-family role conflict and absenteeism graphically gives rise to the psychometric model. Psychometric, is an approach in intelligence research to appreciate the predictive relationship of variables under study (Gleitman, et al, 2004).Stressors like work,job conditions, interpersonal conflict, family stressors such as caring for young children and other relatives, roles in the society, among others, typically, conflict and lead to stress and depression for the individual. Absenteeism is highly related to high levels of confusion, stress and depression. Role stress refers to the work or family conditions that are associated with feelings of role strain. The term conditions has the advantage of referring to role aspects that are either stressful or enhancing. Role strain is now viewed as one of the many potential outcomes of stressful work (family) conditions. Work-family role conflict is one such outcome.

2.1. Work-Family Role Conflict Theories

Responsibilities at home can clash with responsibilities at work, and these conflicts lead to stress, depression and ultimately absenteeism. Ways to manage work (family) role conflict so as to decrease stress, depression and absenteeism on the part of the individual and at the same time increase organizational performance have been studied by earlier researchers in different perspectives. For examples, Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) posit that participation in the work (family) role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family (work) role. Several theories have been invoked in the study of work-family role conflict focusing on three competing theories to explain the interplay between work-role and family role. These are spillover, compensation, and segmentation theories (Boles, et al, 1998, Hall, 1990, Morris, 1997, Snow, 2004, Snow, et al, 2002, 2007, Snow & Zimmerman, 2008, Aryee, et al, 1999, Andersmetal, 2002, Kinnumen& Mauro, 1998, Patrinos&Kagia, 2007, Poelmas, 2001).

2.1.1. Spillover

This theory focuses on the impact that satisfaction and affect from one domain has on the other domain. Positive spillover refers to situations in which the satisfaction, energy, and sense of accomplishment derived from one domain transfers to another. On the contrary, negative spillover is the derived problems being carried over from one domain to another. For example, increased satisfaction (dissatisfaction) in the work domain leads to increased satisfaction (dissatisfaction) with life (Higgins, et al, 1992, Netemeyer, et al, 1996).

2.1.2. Compensation

This is a bidirectional theory stating that the relationship between work and non-work domain is one in which one domain may compensate for what is missing in the other. Thus, domains are likely to be interrelated in a counterbalancing manner. For example, individuals unsatisfied with family life may try to enhance performance at work (Arthur, et al, 1995, Jones, 1986)

2.1.3. Segmentation

Segmentation is a theory that each domain operates independently, such that satisfaction can be derived from work, family, or both. Therefore, segmentation is the antithesis of spillover theory in which it is assumed that one can compartmentalize competing role demands. (Lambert, 1990, Kossek, and Ozeki, 1998).

Individual’s role is important in work (family) role conflict. Employees’ longer working hour is linked to family conflict and stress related health problems. Role Conflict Theory continues to receive a great deal of attention in the literature, and it provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for the study of work (family) role conflict. This theory states that experiencing ambiguity or conflict within a role will result in an undesirable state. Because of conflicting demands (e.g. time, incompatible behaviours) among other roles, multiple roles lead to personal conflicts as it becomes more difficult to perform each role successfully. Research shows that work time, work interference, increase work (family) role usually conflict and that this conflict in turn is related to depression and other stress related health problems (Foley & Powell, 1997, Frone, et al, 1992, 1997). The term "work (family) role conflict" includes the tensions, challenges and struggles individuals may perceive or feel related to their expectations, duties or requirements, and behaviours in, for, and between each role (work and family). For example, Thompson et al, (1999) state that organizations that did not foster a more balanced work (family) life for employees contributed to stress and tensions in employees’ personal lives, which affected their ability to concentrate, be productive and creative on the job. Netemeyeret al (1996) find that work (family) role conflict is negatively related to poor performances. Biernat (1997) explains that role conflict exists when role expectations are incompatible. Role strain or difficulty in meeting role-demands is inevitable and a person "must continually make role decisions and bargains in order to meet role requirements (Grandey&Cropansano, 1999, Kreitner&Kinicki, 2004).

Figure 2. Work-Family Conflict and Depression

Source: Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman (2001:200)

As shown in figure 2Hellriegel, et al, (2001) provide a theoretical model to show that work-stress and family stress lead to work (family) role conflict that results to depression and other health issues. For example, Thomas &Ganster (1995) find that increased work (family) role conflict is related to increased depression and other psychological issues like: strain, anxiety, irritability and hostility. And in furtherance of the research in this area, this study sought to show a distinctive relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism among the dyad. A complex web of demographic and economic factors make the balancing between work life and family life very challenging for most people. Demographically, there are more women in the workforce, more dual-income families, more single working parents, and an aging population that gives mid-career employees more family responsibilities. In the economic front, years of downsizing and corporate restructuring have given employees heavier workloads. According Kreitner and Kinicki (2004) a unique 25 year study of values in the USA reveals that employees have become less convinced that work should be an important part of one’s life or that working hard makes someone a better person. Against this background integrated approach is now advocated because it is believed that work and family are not opposites but instead should be a well-integrated whole. This integration is to balance work and family roles so as to reduce stress, strain, depression and ultimately absenteeism (Ugoani, 2008, 2013a, 2013b, Ugoani&Ewuzie, 2012, 2013). In Nigeria for example, many career women find it difficult to balance work and family roles. They suggest that women should put family before career, probably because when the career is gone, the family becomes the last destination. While counseling career women, Ladipo (2012) states: "After your love for your God, your family comes before your work". According to her, women combine work with the responsibility of settling family issues, counseling, talking, and even praying along with family members, children and others, while still at work. There is no doubt that such involvements can lead to stress, depression and absenteeism, among the dyad.

3. Method

3.1. Participants

The sample consisted of 300 participants (200 females and 100 males) from different occupations, ranging in age from 20 to 60 (Mean = 40 years; SD = -20) (Feldman, 2007). The participants were obtained from the general population across Abia State, Nigeria.

3.2. Materials

A 14-item 7-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was used to generate primary data. The Liker-scale is a summated rating scale. Participants were required to circle one of seven numbers on the scale (1-very unlikely; 7=very likely) on factors such as job knowledge, satisfaction, family pressure, among others that closely relate to them. Previous investigation have found the total scores on the Likert-scale to be acceptably internally consistent through the Cronach’s Alpha technique at. 82; indicating good internal consistency. Also, content and construct validity have been established. (Nworuh, 2001, Carlson, et al, 2000, Haupachern, et al, 1998, Obodoeze, 1996).

3.3. Procedure

The data collection materials were administered on the participants by the investigator and two assistants. All the materials administered were retrieved and found suitable for the purpose of analysis (Madsen, 2003b).

3.4. Data Analysis

Data were analyzed through the Chi-Square statistical technique. The results were presented in tables using absolute figures and the comparative percentages capable of self-explanation and further analysis. The Chi-Square equation used was:

Where O1 = Observed frequencies

E1 = Expected frequencies and

n = no. of Categories considered

4. Presentation of Result

Table 1. Chi-square test.

Respondent Agreed Disagreed Strongly agreed Strongly disagreed Neutral Total Calculated value Table value Level significance d/f
  No % No % No % No % No %          
Male 10 3.34 30 10.00 15 5.00 25 8.33 20 6.67 100        
Female 25 8.33 35 11.67 40 13.33 85 28.33 15 5.00 200        
Total 35 11.67 65 21.67 55 18.33 110 36.66 35 11.67 300 20.47 9.48 0.05 4

Source: Field work, 2015.

4.1. Interpretation of Resultand Discussion

From the test statistics in table 1, it was noted that the calculated value of Chi-Square of 20.47 was significantly greater than the table value of 9.48 at 0.05 level of significance, with 4 degrees of freedom. This technically means that work-family conflict has high degree of relationship with absenteeism. To this extent, the hypothesis which stated that work-family role conflict has no relationship with absenteeism was rejected while the alternate hypothesis was accepted. This empirical result is interesting and never an exaggeration because it agrees with the findings of Burley, 1989, Goff, et al, 1990, among others that work-family role conflict is related to important individual and organizational outcomes, such as absenteeism.A way of improving the performance of employees and reducing work family role conflict now receives high attention from researchers in view of its impact on both the organization and the individual. Performance research has also centered on a variety of issues including stress, mental and physical health and absenteeism (Carlson &Perrewe, 1999). The term work-family conflict includes the tensions, challenges, and struggles individuals may perceive or feel related to their expectations, duties, requirements and behaviours in, for, and between each role (work and family) For example, Thompson, et al (1999) found that organizations that did not foster a more balanced work-family life for employees contributed to stress and tensions in employees personal lives, which affected their ability to concentrate, be productive and creative on the job.Netemeyer, et al (1996) found that work-family conflict was negatively related to job performance. Other researchers such as Morris (1997)state that greater work family conflict is linked to reduced concentration and attention on the job and also linked to absenteeism, tardiness, turnover, low job commitment, low job involvement,overall performance, and reduced organizational citizenship. In addition Gutek, et al (1991) state that there are two directions of possible influence or spillover, involving work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. They posit that work-to-family conflict stems from interference of events in the work role with an individual’s ability to perform effectively in his or her family role. Family-to-work conflict stems from interference of events or responsibilities in the family role with an employee’s ability to perform his or her job effectively. Aryee, et al (1999) suggest that to truly understand work-family role conflict both directions must be considered. In the work-family role conflict area, positive spillover would be affirmed when the satisfaction, energy, happiness and stimulation an individual has at work would crossover into positive feelings and energy at home or when positive satisfaction, energy and happiness from home crosses over to a positive experience at work (Higgins, et al, 1992) This could also be broadened to encompass the positive influence that low levels of work-family, role conflict or good mental and physical health have on job performance and other workplace outcomes. Again, in the work-family role conflict arena, negative spillover from work to family is demonstrated when the problems, conflicts, or energy at work has strained and preoccupied an individual, making it difficult to participate in family life effectively and positively (Foley & Powell, 1997). Negative spillover from family to work, in the form of divorcing, problems with children, or the death ofa close friend or family member can also be broadened to encompass the negative effects of high levels of work-family role conflict or poor mental and physical health can have on various work-place outcomes. Role conflict theory states that experiencing ambiguity or conflict within a role will result in an undesirable state. Multiple roles lead to personal conflict to perform each role successfully (Grandey&Cropanzano, 1999) Biernet (1997) states that role conflict exists when role expectations are incompatible. Greebhaus and Beutell (1985) suggest that work-family role conflict exists when time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another role, strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another role, and specific behaviours required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another role. Thomas and Genster (1995) find that increased work-family role conflict is related to increased depression and other psychological issues such as strain anxiety, irritability and hostility. Madsen (2003) states that work-family role conflict is related to negative outcomes, also Carlson et al (2000) suggests that work involvement significantly correlates with work-to-family role conflict. Work-family conflict can be time-based, strain-based, or behavior-based. Time-based conflict occurs when the role pressures stemming from the two different domains compete for the individual’s time such as requiring employees to work late with little notice might make it difficult for employees to meet family obligations, strain-based conflict occurs when the strain experienced in one role domain interferes with effective performance of role behaviours in the other domain. For example, a father who is anxious about his child’s illness might not be able to fully concentrate on his job. Behavior-based conflict is described as conflict stemming from incompatible behaviors demanded by competing roles. For example, a manager in a financial services firm might be expected to be aggressive, unemotional and even sober, but these same bahaviours in the family domain would most likely lead to conflict with family members. Hammer and Thompson (2003) posit that time based conflict, the most common type of work-family conflict is based on the scarcity hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the sum of human energy is fixed and that multiple roles inevitably reduce the time and energy available to meet all role demands, thus creating strain and work-family conflict. Based on these examples, it is suggested that work-family conflict is bi-directional. That is to say that work can interfere with family and family can interfere with work. These dimensions of directionality have been identified as distinct, reciprocal constructs that have independent antecedents and outcomes. Some studies have demonstrated that work-to-family conflict is primarily caused by work-related stressors and that it predicts family-related affective and behavioural outcomes, while family-to-work conflict is caused by family-related stressors and predicts work-related outcomes (Frone, et al, 1997). Also, based on quantitative methods, Madsen (2005) found negative correlations between work-family conflict and variables such as health, and other workplace, psychological and behavioural constructs, including organizational commitment, leadership relations, job demands, and social relations (Enser, et al, 1985).

4.2. Scope for Further Study

Further study should examine the relationship between work family role conflict and performance. This may help to establish the causes of business failures in some countries, including Nigeria.

4.3. Recommendations

i)          Workplaces should be made conducive for human happiness to encourage waking employees to reduce absenteeism and like going to work.

ii)        Ethical business and socially responsible leadership are strongly related to high productivity and this is advocated for business prosperity.

iii)       Ability to treat employees according to their emotional reactions and needs is imperative.Understanding individuals’ psychological imperatives is important and capable of reinforcing positive behaviours both at work and at home.

iv)      With the increasing numbers of young women in paid employment and the resultant increased family responsibilities for the dyad employers should embrace flexible working hours to suit the time of employees, especially, knowledge employees. This will help to reduce absenteeism.

v)        Government should not only make legislation but also enforce such legislation to make employers buy into the need of treating employees with due respect. Studies show that many employees leave their job not necessarily because of low pay but in some cases due to shabby treatment by their managers or business owners. Turnover and absenteeism are detrimental to organizational growth and any governmental actions to wedge the tide will be to the growth of the Gross Domestic product (GDP) of the economy.

5. Conclusion

Many factors such as demographic and economic make the balancing of work and family roles very challenging for the dyad. In many places, there are now more women in the workforce like in Nigeria where over 70 percent of teachers in primary and secondary schools are women. There are also more dual income families, more single working parents and an aging population that tend to give mid-career employees more family responsibilities. Research shows that work ethic is declining in favour of a more existential view of life. With this philosophy, work becomes only one alternative among many as a means for becoming a happy person. Family activities, leisure, are now seen as very critical for individuals to become self-actualized. To this extent an integration approach is advocated. This integration is to accommodate work and family issues and balance the roles to reduce stress, strain and ultimately absenteeism. In furtherance of research in the area of work family role conflict, this study sought to show the distinctive relationship between work-family role conflict and absenteeism. Through statistical analysis the study found a strong positive relationship between work family role conflict and absenteeism among the dyad.


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Dr. Ugoani is a Senior lecturer and Coordinator, College of Management and Social Sciences, Rhema University, Aba. He teaches courses on business, management, production management, human resource management, psychology, industrial psychology, and industrial relations. He supervised the development of his College’s curriculum through NUC - National Universities Commission’s accreditation in 2013. John is recognized for presenting the first best PhD Dissertation in Management at the Faculty of Business Administration, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. He has over 50 scholarly publications with full  paper readership downloads and abstract views over 1000 and 5000 respectively and listed among Ten Top Authors by SSRN.

MA 02210, USA
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