American Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2015 Publish Date: Jul. 16, 2015 Pages: 196-205

Impacts of "School Terrorism" in the Milieu of Peshawar Incident; Pakistan’s Black Day, December 16th, 2014

Syed Sajjad Nasir Kazmi1, Arshad Ali2,*

1Department of Civil Engineering, MCE Risalpur Cantonment, KPK, Pakistan

2National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Mankind has been suffering the disasters of many a types which had either been natural or manmade. All the geophysical and the hydro-metrological disasters are related to the nature but all anthropogenic disasters are related to the actions of the human- beings, whether covert or overt on one pretext or the other. One thing common for all is that these have deep penetrating impacts on the humans with respect to their way of life in the performance of gendered roles, usage of property and assets, balance of trade and economy as well as the layout of politico military and psychosocial infrastructure. Capacity building strategies too had been evolved to deal with and recover from all such impacts of disasters but the worst among all are the psychosocial impacts on women and especially on children which are time consuming to heal with. On one hand, a disaster may have huge volumetric effect but negligible impact on the psychosocial build up and vice versa depending upon the degree of human vulnerability and severity of the impact. As opposed to the natural or other manmade disasters, terrorism has its own significance in this context and among all other multidimensional aspects of terrorism, "School Terrorism" is considered to be worst carrying drastic and long lasting impacts on the exposed community. The paper in questions reviews the disaster of terrorism in totality with specific emphasis on "School Terrorism" in the backdrop of "Peshawar Incident" on December 16th, 2014.


Terrorism, School Terrorism, Talibans and Talibanization

1. Introduction

September the 11th,2001 gave a new dimension to the disaster events in the shape of "State Terrorism" when the USA was under attack by Al-Qaida hijackers / terrorists at 10:30 am thus demolishing the famous Twin Towers to the ground zero thus killing 2,977 victims and the 19 hijackers [1]. Right at that time, US President George W. Bush was on a visit to the Emma. E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota; Cryptome (2001). In US alone, 84 % parents or adults in the family discussed about their children for an hour or more about the attacks on WTC where as 34 % restricted their children's watching TV. 35% children had the symptoms of acute stress while 47 % others were too stressed for their own safety as well as the safety of their near and dears; [2]. In September 2001, Pakistan stood by the International Community for war against terror and was thus declared as the front line state. That’s how, disaster of terrorism got imported in Pakistan soon after the arrival of US lead NATO forces in Afghanistan. Irrespective of the debatable question whether Pakistan had been fighting somebody else’s war or its own war on terror, but the fact remains that its’ her own war, not only at the door step rather well inside it. Besides thousands of causalities and billions of losses, hundreds of the schools have been destroyed, especially the girls schools while also hitting quite a no. of school vans killing several hundred school going boys and girls at various intervals but the incident of terrorist attack on Army Public School & Degree College, Peshawar on 16th December 2014 has not only shaken the entire nation but also has astounded the international communities.

1.1. Problem Statement

Henceforth, Pakistani Nation has been fighting the war on terror since past one and a half decade or so while paying a heavy price of peace. On the overall, Pakistan nation has suffered more than 80,000 causalities on account of terrorism alone, inclusive Pakistan Army which suffered a no. of approximate 49000 life loss from September 2001 to 2008 and later 15681 till date [3]. Pakistan has suffered a total loss of about US$ 100 billion/- in last 14 years of war on terror (as against official losses of US$ 68 billion in fiscal year 2010/11 due to military operations from September 2001 till date [4]. It is a high time now that the terrorists have laid their filthy hands on innocent "School Children" directly hitting the psychosocial fabric of the community while not only challenging the writ of the state but also making the community to bend in a knee knelt position to accept their terms, yet a hard target to win.

1.2. Study Significance

The study entails the deep insight of triggering event of "School Terrorism" thus marking December 16th, 2014 as "Black Day" for Pakistan as far as its educational infrastructure is concerned.

1.3. Study Objective

The paper under review dilates upon the upsurge of "School Terrorism" in Pakistan and its impacts on the community in the backdrop of "School Shooting" at Peshawar (provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhaw-KPK) on December 16th, 2014; Pakistan’s Black Day with a view to recommend practical measures for designing and developing strategies at community and at National Level to end this menace.

1.4. Literature Review

Following are the areas of major concern to focus:-

1.4.1. Historical Perspective of Terrorism

The word terror has a Latin origin from the word "Terrere" which means "to make tremble". The prehistoric period of terrorism is as old as the manifestations of terror through the ages of zealots and assassins from 1789 to 1968 AD. The invention of modern terror introduced the "Anarchist Terrorists" of the19th Century. The Russian Terrorism prevailed from 1878–1908 until the arrival of "Golden Age" terrorism through Lenin and Stalin. The "State Terrorism" existed in the times of war i.e. World War I & II to the wars of national liberation. At last, the roots of Islamic radicalism spread giving birth to Al-Qaida in the Cold War era [5]. The first Mesopotamian Empire was raised as the Assyrian Military Empire (Sargon of Akkad) which was founded on terror whose brutality was aimed "to crush the spirit and break the will". Later it was pronounced with the word "violence" to pin the rebellion and as a tool of enslavement and as a guarantor of mass obedience. "State Terrorism" whether covert or overt, had been haunted as war’s monster for centuries and an act of mass murder. Once unleashed, it can set the constrain behaviour without the necessity of fighting. Same terror and violence methods were used by the Mongols and the Tamerlane to reduce cities without having to resort to siege [6]. The main aim of terrorism is to terrorize, in order to set the course of illegitimate use of violence in the terrorist like activities. The history also predicts the most notorious forms of contemporary terrorism in the religious dimension, not withstanding its political objectives e.g. Jewish zealots of the first century and the Ismaili assassins from 11th to the 13th century; [7]. This religious aspect of terrorism had long been the central pivot of most societies which prevail even now.

1.4.2. Tehrik Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) came into being in 2002 (post September the 11th, 2001), when Pakistan Army executed planned operations in Federally Administered Tribal Areas – FATA (consisting of seven agencies) to evict the foreign militants (Arabs and Central Asians i.e. Uzbeks and Tajiks), who had fled from the war in Afghanistan (with Russia-Cold War) to Pakistan. TTP is currently based in FATA and PATA (Provincially Administered Tribal Area i.e. Dir and Swat area) along the Durand Line having deep roots in Afghanistan. TTP contains those assassins and fighters who had fought (pre cold war period) or still had been fighting against NATO forces (in cold war period) in Afghanistan. TTP declared its leadership under Baitullah Mehsud (December 2007-August 2009) followed by Hakimullah Mehsud [8]. TTP was not only banned by Govt of Pakistan but also declared as the terrorist organization on 25 August 2008. TTP though not directly, but partially remained affiliated with Tehrik Afghan Taliban (TAT), which ruled Afghanistan for four years in post cold war era, after the assassination of Dr. Najibullah, former Afghan president. For its malicious and dual agenda of resisting Pakistan state laws to establish their own version of Shariah (Caliphate), TTP regards democracy "harram" (forbidden) while at the same time supporting Talibanization in Afghanistan. TTP is also considered to have associations with Al Qaeda for having played a role in "Times Square" car bomb explosion [9].

2. Study Design & Methodology

The study is primarily qualitative in its design to find out the deep insight of the problem stated. Since the incident had just occurred, so sufficient details were not available, so the members of the affected community and all those relational members were contacted to know the details through telephonic / unwitting interviews followed by on ground visit and carrying out physical meetings for one on one interviews, gathering primary data and analysis from focus groups to culminate at findings and conclusion.

3. Finding the Causes of Terrorism in Pakistan

3.1. Sectarian Violence

Post 1979 revolution in Iran, anti Shiite Muslims militant group emerged e.g. Sipah e Sehaba Pakistan (SSP) raised by Ahle Sunnat against whom Sipah e Muhammad (SM) was raised by Shiites each of which respectively was funded by Saudi Arabia and Iran respectively which became instrumental in transforming Pakistan into battlefield of religious extremism fired by sectarian violence.

3.2. Emergence of Salafi School of Thought

It approves the use of suicide bombing in wagging war (so-called jehad) against the Jews and the Shias. They also believe that democracy is harram (forbidden).

3.3. Hoarding of Terrorism from Afghanistan

Sequel to Russo-Afghan war, a large influx of refugees arrived into Pakistan. As per the data of 2012, there are 1.6 Million registered Afghan refugees living in Pakistan since last thirty years; [10]. Besides this, there are 2.7 Million unregistered and illegal Afghan immigrants living in FATA and KPK; [11]. All this imported the Kalashnikov culture causing massive weaponization of the society.

3.4. Talibanization

It is the process of indoctrination of Taliban school of thought into the Madrassas (Religious Institutions) students throughout the length and the breadth of the country (Author). More so, poverty ridden parents mostly tend to send their children to these Madrassas for making their sons and daughters religious scholars or teachers who in turn not only learn religious extremism but also become Talibans besides learning the use of weapons e.g. Red Mosque in Islamabad. Shariah of Taliban is basically Deobandi in origin pertaining to the "Daar-ul-Uloom" located at Deoband, India. It has now many off shoots throughout the subcontinent and many other countries of the world.

3.5. Role of Daar-ul-Uloom Deoband in Talibanization

Daar-ul-Uloom Deoband was founded on Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May30, 1866) under the auspices of the Brithish Government to modify the Islamic Shariah to their wish and will. That’s why, its track (in addition to the Holy Quoran and Sunnah) is laid on the consensus (Ijma) and the analogy (Qiyas).They believe in the solution of propositions (masail) through narration (Riwayat), tradition (Naqqal) and historic evidence (A’sar) which contradict the normal religious path. They also believe in the discernment of religion i.e. Tafaqquh fid din);[12]. Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki became the first "Ameer-ul-Momineen" (leader of the faithful) on the behest of Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi (Tadhkirat al-Rashid) and Maulana Muhammad Qasin Naunatwi where as Maulana Husayn Ahmed Madani himself became the "Sheik-ul-Islam" (commander o the faithful); [13]. Later, Jehad against the ruling Britishers and their supporters was proclaimed consequently to the massacre done at Fatehpur, Dehli where the innocent citizens had been killed including young men and women. The innocent children had been burnt alive by Major Reynard because the Muslim population over there had refused and objected to the construction of a church; [14]. Study of modern sciences is excluded from the "Deobandi School of thought and so there is in Talbanization;[15]. "Red Mosque" in Islamabad draws its traces from the "Red Fort" in Delhi and align it as the true Maddrassa descendent past mid 19th century A.D. Quote "The end of the influence of these madrassahs would be very much like what had happened in Spain: there are no traces of the eight centuries of Muslim rule in Spain except the ruins of Granada and Cordoba and the palaces of Al-Hamra and Bab al-Akhwain, and without these madrassahs there would be no trace left of Islam except the Taj Mahal at Agra and the Red Fort in Delhi" unquote; [16]. When doing Qittal (killing and slaughtering) in the name of so-called Jihad, the Talibans raise slogan "Allah-o-Akbar", is also derived from the Deobandi School of Thought as it is there in the "Azan" (the call for prayers) with an objective to charge the Islamic attack.; [17]. No. of alumni passed out from Dar- al-‘Ulum Deoband exceed 17000 including 4000 foreigners belonging to Afghanistan, Russia, China, Australia, South America, England, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Ceylon, South Africa, Zambia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Yemen. Other students who received elementary Deobandi Islamic education also exceed 70,000. Thus, the total no. of alumni comes to around 100,000 across the world besides thousands of other religious Madrasahs in cities, towns and villages, which also somehow or the other affiliated with Dar- al-‘Ulum Deoband; [18].

3.6. Da’ish, ISIS and ISIL Linkage

Da’ish (Dawlah -al-Islāmīyah fīl-ʻIrāq wa ash-Shām), ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) and ISIL {Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Levant means land of the rising sun)} are the Sunni extremist or Jehadi rebellious groups that operate under one flag (black flag bearing inscription of "Allah-o-Akbar" above a round stamp written inside Allah, Rasool, Muhammad).They operate in more than sixty countries worldwide, especially Middle East, North Africa {Egypt (Sinai Peninsula)},Libya, Southeast Asia, South Africa, South Asia (especially Pakistan); [19]. Since June 2014, these groups are now collectively called as Islamic State (IS). It came into being in 1999 and existed with different names e.g. Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (1999–2004),Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn ;later Al-Qaida(2004–2006),Mujahideen Shura Council (2006),Islamic State of Iraq (2006–2013),Islamic Stat of Iraq and Levant (2013–2014), and "Islamic State" (June 2014 till date). It believes in Salafi -Takfiri School of Thought and is the follower of Saudi Abdul Wahab (founder of Wahabi’ism) and has deep linkage with Dar-ul-Uloom, Deoband. Their extracted religion is "Wahabi Deobandi"; [20]. Areas of Iraq and Syria under the influence of Da’ish (group head/name of ISIS, ISIL, ISIS & IS) show that they have complete control over about eight million of population; [21]. TTP has very deep linkage with Da’ish (ISIS and ISIL) as its spokesperson Mr. Shahidullah Shahid has announced their allegiance with Caliphate of Abu Bakar Albaghdadi and their Ameer-ul-Momineen Mullah Omar (Chief of Afghan Taliban). These include, Mr. Saeed Khan, TTP Ameer (chief) Orakzai Agency (FATA), Mr. Daulat Khan, TTP’s chief Kurram Agency (FATA), Mr. Fateh Gul Zaman, TTP’s Chief Khyber Agency(FATA), Mr. Mufti Hassan TTP’s Chief Peshawar (KP) and Mr. Khalid Mansoor TTP’s Chief Hangu. They have also very recently announced their personal allegiance and support to the Da’sih Caliph Abu Bakar Al-Baghdadi Al Qureshi Al-Hussaini; [22]. Da’ish (and TTP) is reputed for suicidal attacks, genocide of innocent civilians, child militancy, sexual violence / abuse, Jihad-un-Nikkah (i.e. each and every devoted jihadi women is considered a legitimate wife of every Jehadi Da’ish fighter terrorist), religious minorities persecution, human resource violations, war criminology, women and child abduction / molestation, attacks on media, beheading/mass executions, destruction of religious and cultural heritage and human limbs/organs trafficking etc; [23].

3.7. Bad Governance

Unfortunately there had been bad governance in Pakistan serving only the malafide political interests of the governments since past one and a half decade instead of addressing the national issues leading to poor law and order situation, high crime rate, poverty elevation, financial crunch, bad stock market, political unrest and violence etc.

3.8. Political Militancy

All the major political parties have the militant organs duly weaponized serving their interests causing violence among each others’ supporters in major cities, especially at Karachi.

3.9. Unchecked / Unabated Foreign Funding

Lot of maddrassas and spiritual healing centers have come up with huge area and buildings without any check on financial support. These host the terrorists and provide adequate logistics support.

3.10. Vested Interests

In the garb of "war on terror" and Pakistan as a front line state, some powers like USA, Russia, Israel and India are serving their politico-economic and strategic interests in the region causing terrorism. Such powers do not know what heinous crime they are doing with humanity following meager interests closing eyes over the relentless fire which may engulf them too, if not today but few years later.

3.11. Discriminated Talibanization

 Sequel to the vested interests, Talibans had been grouped as American Talibans, Afghan Talibans and Pakistan Talibans duly supported by respective agencies for having provided ample opportunity to strengthen the internal Talibanization process meeting their mutual agenda of TTP, Al-Qaida and Da’ish across the Southeast Asia, South Asia and Middle East accruing the foundations for unlimited "Global War on Terror".

4. Discussion / Analysis of Terrorism vs School Terrorism

4.1. Terrorism in Retrospect

Modern-day terrorism seeks to adopt the saga of guerrilla warfare as the most preferred and practically exclusive weapon of the weak against the strong having the "Mind" as a primary target causing social disruption thus giving the violence, a nomenclature of psychosocial warfare to yield far greater impacts than the physical effects. Following bar chart has been devised (by the author) on the basis of variety of information sources representing the percent increase in the terrorism and its relative impact on the religious, political, educational, psychosocial and economical infrastructure across the globe since 1800 till 2014:-

Fig. 1. Types of global terrorism increase trans centuries.

Fig. 2. Comparison of school terrorism incidents in Pakistan and the world (2001-2014).

Fig. 3. Comparison of terrorism incidents across provincial jurisdiction of Pakistan vs school terrorism.

Fig. 4. Cross sectional view of school terrorism incidents in Pakistan between 2001-2014.

4.2. Why School Terrorism

The terrorists have tried their best to hit the structural, non-structural as well as the ideological nerve centers for their gains but have been unsuccessful due to the relentless active / passive counter terrorism measures adopted by the nation and its armed forces. Since, the children by nature are innocent and symbol of love and affection for everyone across the international boundaries, the terrorists have not even left this option to explore. The children, school buses and the schools/colleges are highly vulnerable which had been the most popular targets of terrorism as it not only achieves the mass media attention for longer periods but also up-heaves the psychosocial fabric of the community with wide array of impacts. In addition, the schools / colleges present the targets which are very soft and symbolic in nature thus carrying massive potential of causalities. However, these carry the risk of estrangement.

4.3. Genesis of School Terrorism

4.3.1. School Terrorism World Wide

Worldwide history of School terrorism since 1996 till 2014 shows that there had been 85 cases of school shooting affecting the most USA and then Canada, Scotland, Yemen, Kenya, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Argentine, Finland, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Norway, France, Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan [24]. Pakistan alone suffered eighteen cases of School Terrorism from 2001 till 2014 as against sixty three in the world total. This is evident from the following bar chart:-

4.3.2. Terrorism in Pakistan vs School Terrorism

Since 2001 to 2014, there had been a total of four hundred seventy two (472) terrorists’ attacks on Pakistan, out of which eighteen attacks were there on the educational institutions including various schools, colleges, universities and other training institutions. Percentage share and the no. of terrorism incidents are expressed as under for each province comparing the cumulative effect on education (data compiled by author from variety of information/sources):-

Above data indicates that the KPK had been the worst hit as compared to Punjab. Sind and Baluchistan are almost equally affected with respect to each other. Negligible impact is there on GB and AJ&K. However, there had been considerable effect on educational infrastructure.

4.3.3. Incidents of School Terrorism in Pakistan

No worth reporting incident of School terrorism has been observed between 2001 and 2005, however a gradual increase had been observed thereafter. Detail is as under:-

i.      12 students killed in a School at Gilgit, Gilgit Baltistan ((GB) on 13 October, 2005.

ii.      26 female teachers and students got injured in a suicidal attempt at Dera Bugti, Baluchistan on 10 Mar 2006.

iii.      Two female teachers and two children shot dead in Orakzai Agency, FATA, KP on 16 June 2006.

iv.     Bombing on a School Bus carrying medical students at Rawalpindi , Punjab killing seven in 2008.

v.      Naval College was attacked at Lahore, Punjab on 4 Mar 2008 killing 8 and injuring 24 persons.

vi.     Paramilitary School was attacked at Mardan, KPK on 18 May 2008 killing 13 and injuring 20 students.

vii.    Islamabad Police Academy was attacked in 2008, causalities not known.

viii.    Paramilitary School was attacked at Charsada, KPK on 12 November 2008 killing two and injuring seven.

ix.     Government Polytechnical College was attacked at Dera Ismael Khan on 4 Jan 2009 injuring 25 students.

x.      Manawan Police Training School, Lahore, Punjab was attacked on 30 Mar 2009. Five students, two teachers and a passerby were killed where as 93 students got injured.

xi.      International Islamic University, Islamabad was attacked on 20 Oct 2009 killing nine students and injuring twenty-nine.

xii.     More than a dozen girl’s school had been blown up in 2008, 09 and 2010 in FATA and PATA. No causalities as the schools were blown up after the school timings.

xiii.     Four female teachers had been shot dead in Bajour, KPK on 2nd September, 2010.

xiv.     A school was attacked in Mardan, KP on 13 May 2011, killing 80 students and injuring 15.

xv.      A school bus was attacked in Peshawar, KP on 13 September, 2011 in which four children and a bus driver were killed while injuring 17 students.

xvi.     Mala Yousaf Zai incident occurred on 9 October 2012.

xvii.   Aitzaz Ahsan incident took place at Hangu, KP who saved the lives of more than 2000 students in a high school, when he refrained a suicide bomber to enter into the school. He has been awarded Sitara-e-Shuja’at by Govt of Pakistan, posthumous.

xviii.   A tragic incident of Army Public School & Degree College occurred on 16 December 2014, killing 132 students and 13 other staff members. It had ever lasting impacts on the world community at large and Pakistan in particular.

Bar Chart referred to at Fig 4.3.3 above shows narrowing down further on the educational impact of School Terrorism, GB/AJ&K, Baluchistan and Punjab had been equally affected in the years 2005 and 2006. Years 2008/09 had been quite heavy for KPK, Punjab and the Federal Capital but surprisingly, no further impact on these provinces less KPK/FATA which had been receiving the same blows with equal intensity up to year 2014, barring 2013. This is why because KPK/FATA had been the near most, very easy but highly vulnerable targets.

5. Mpacts of School Terrorism Vis a Vis Peshawar Incident

Ultimate objective of terrorism or the guerilla warfare is to challenge the survival and writ of the nation in order to annihilate the centre of gravity to achieve the malicious aims. Natural or conventional manmade disasters might of high intensity but may generate less disastrous impacts. Pakistani nation has been facing such type of disasters both natural and manmade since her independence in 1947 but the war on terror has become quite treacherous and lengthy since past one and a half decade. Still the nation is pulling on very bravely with its centre of gravity well intact. There may be incidents of less intensity with respect to life, material, social, cultural, heritage or structural loss but may engrave deep psychosocial impacts causing complete community disruption. Incident of School Terrorism at Army Public School & Degree College, Warsak Road, Peshawar (provincial capital of KPK) had devastating impacts heard and felt across the international community from the Great Wall of China to the pillars of White House and from the arsenals of United Nations to the Bells of Vatican City touching almost every heart. Muslim Ummah had also been deeply aggrieved on the bloodshed of innocent children. Irony is not only cutting own throat with own knife but slaughtering our own children being the Muslims. The day certainly would be marked as another "Black day" for Pakistan in the annals of history, like the one earlier on 16 December 1971, The fall of Dhaka, East Pakistan. Following broad impacts are jotted down in this context:-

5.1. Psychosocial Impacts

All those children, students, teachers, parents, relatives and the friends who had been directly involved with this incident have been directly affected. This incident has captured a special place in the minds and hearts of people across the entire country and world. It has become an unforgettable incident drawing various lessons and the motivation. It has mobilized the whole nation from the poor to the rich, from a truck driver to an aviation flier, from a job holder to a businessman, from a govt servant to a bureaucrat or politician and from an advocate to a judge, an engineer or a doctor. No one in the community is left who hasn’t felt the heart pounding wave of sorrow, grief and vengeance.

5.2. Politico Military Impacts

Pakistan Armed Forces are already fighting war on terror. Operation Zarb-e-Azb is in progress and various other operations like Operation Rah-e-Raast have already achieved the desired results. Terrorists are already under full blow and retreat. Few commentators also view the Peshawar incident as fall out military operations. Why terrorists selected the Army Public School & Degree College because mostly the lady wives of military personnel teach here and their own children as well as the children of martyrs (shu’hada), and other local children are taught here. Moreover, the medium of instruction is English which Talibans don’t like. Terrorist wanted to give psychosocial injuries to the participants of Operation Zarb-e-Azb. Political instability already prevailed in the country in the backdrop of agitation and Dharnas (crowd sittings) by Tehrik-e-Insaf of Imran Khan on account of polls rigging against government. Innocent bloodshed has been found too powerful an instrument to unite the diverging politicians. Now the military and political leadership is onboard to take on with terrorists under a uniform national policy on counter terrorism.

5.3. Impact on Media

Media in Pakistan, both print and electronic had become too biased and diametrically opposed. It is now unidirectional and has played a major role to convey the message of peace by the little martyrs overseas.

5.4. Impact on Education

Education lovers in school, colleges and universities throughout the country have become emotionally charged to end terrorism through awareness and education at all tiers. Malala Yousafzai is seen in every daughter of the soil and a war hero in every son. Terrorists seemed fail to win their objective against the imparting of education.

5.5. Impact on National Policy

Political parties having little favouritism towards Talibanization have also declared themselves absolved of this blame and curse. They too have supported the true cause of war on terror that there were no good or bad Talibans rather they were the enemies of nation. They have supported the speedy trials and punishments of already apprehended terrorists.

5.6. Impact on National Economy

Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE-100) index was down by 813.26 points and KSE index by 209 points respectively on 17th and 18th December 2014, ever recorded in the history; Dawn News 17,18 December 2014

5.7. Impact on Global Community

Almost every nation has condemned the attack. US President Barak Obama, British Prime Minister David Cameron as well as Chinese and the Indian premiers also have condemned the attacks, so the same as UN Secretary General Ban ki Moon. Turkey lowered its national flag for one day. Pop Francis has marked the X-Mass 2014 as full of sorrows and pains and advised to celebrate somberly at respective home countries.

5.8. Impact on Judiciary

No colossal impact is seen. Judges at all levels seem not to decide and give verdict on the cases of terrorism for they are either bribed heavily or seem little afraid of threats and dire consequences given by Talibans.

6. Way Forward-Mitigation of School Terrorism Through Disaster Risk Management (DRM)

School Terrorism incidents are marked as very dreadful because these generally are rarely occurring events. Therefore, when such event happens, institutional planning is considered to be the best strategy to deal with. It has two approaches; one is incident specific and the other is a functional approach. The former may includes the events like fire incidents, weapon assaults, bomb explosion threats, natural weather hazards, utility failures, hostage situations or incidents related to nuclear, radiological, chemical and/or biological warfare. The later approach includes the events like locking down to evacuate, provision of "Shelter in Place", unity in incident direction, school emergency plan adaptation and reserved evacuation, reunification and public/media information.

To deal with "School Terrorism" emergencies, multi hazard approach must pass through the four phases of typical DRM cycle i.e. Prevention/Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery.

Fig. 5. Disaster management cycle.

6.1. Prevention/Mitigation

This phase is intended to reduce the harmful effects of terrorism incident and also to lessen the effort and time needed to affect the efficient response mechanism by the security climate & culture adaptation and carrying out the day to day rehearsals / exercises. Following is also essential:-

i.   Have an access control to the non-custodial parental hood abduction, child molestation and/or gang / drug violence.

ii.  Carry out the thorough back ground check, police/community verification and the security clearance of all employees, volunteers, new admissions and employments. Always know, "Who he/she is?"

iii.  Carry out the crime prevention through environmental design.

iv. Adopt both active/passive security measures e.g. physical security drills through increased vigilance and surveillance, adopt school safety zone measures, increase the law enforcement activities, weapons clearing drills, mobile phones/computer security, information security and also follow good route security.

6.2. Preparedness

It implies that time and resources must be invested to ensure rapid, effective and coordinated response at all levels when needed. Preparedness in short is "Stitch in time saves nine". It includes the identification of key stake holders, methods of communication with the response teams and time needed to arrive, methods/drills to hold on with terrorists/emergency particularly for that time, safety information on the buildings and maps as well as students release procedures through emergency exits. Above everything else, always remember, "Rehearse, Rehearse and Rehearse" as long as we face the terrorism now and the future, for if we are not prepared, we shall have to pay the heavy price always as ever or else we lose our independence.

6.3. Response

It means the following up of "Preparedness Plan" already rehearsed many times, among the middle of emergency. Always check that; the response is to be carried out by whom, with what force, in what time frame and the most important, what is the capability of response team to do and deliver in time because the terrorists come to kill and get killed causing maximum attrition on the objective.

6.4. Recovery

In fact, the recovery is expedited soon after the response is administered. First of all, "To Recover" from the emergency / terrorism situation with mental presence and endurance without shock is the key to success. Finally, contact full time mental and physical recovery of all the affected persons and property through treatment, rehabilitation and re-construction. Yard stick is to "Return to Normal" as quickly as possible to ensure smooth run of life and the institutional programs continuity.

7. Conclusion

Crux of the issue lies in the "Realization" as Pakistani citizen in particular and as a member of the international community in general. Had it not been the matter of each one of us, it should not have been rattled and heard by every citizen and an every state. So, terrorism is every body’s problem and merits attention for each one of us for solution through a holistic approach. Terrorists whether a state, a group of individuals or an individual alone has to be identified, segregated and sorted out without any discrimination and vested interest. Underlying question, whether "Terrorism in its every definition" is Pakistan’s problem alone? The answer is evident too and we know it. We also know, who is/are terrorist(s), what to do, what not to do and how to do, then why not to do it right now unless its’ too late to do. "Martyrdom is Preferred than Repentance" is the message for all of us from each and every martyr who has laid his/her life to end terrorism from the globe.


Following recommendations are proffered:-

Institutional Framework: School/college campuses must possess custom-built disaster risk management linkages evolved through expert hazard & vulnerability assessment. Terrorism resilient campuses are desirable to evolve such "Emergency Operation Plans" which introduce intrinsic System Protocols, Software Network Systems; Site Mosaics Features and the Flip Charts (CD-ROM incorporated). Each and every person in the campus must be well practiced in "Triage" and as "First Responders". Separate evacuation plans, shelter in place plans and communication plans will be of much help respectively for the elementary classes, adolescents and college level students. Lock down drills at the rate of ninety percent and shelter in place drills at the rate of ten percent are required to be essentially conducted. Control and streamline "Madrassa Education System" in line with conventional education system through "Waffaq-ul-Madaris". Must keep an effective check on foreign funding in the name of sacred offerings or donations via third party. Belligerent interests be watched with open eyes and repelled through the role play of submerged foreign policy.

National Policy Modification: Community involvement is paramount from identification to the decision making process. Community authorities and the leaders must know, what religious scholars "Maulvis" address during the "Friday Prayer’s Sermon". Every person must know who is/are living beside him(er). Report the strangers to the authorities. Eliminate bribery and enforce strict punishments without discrimination. Biometric System be incorporated in the security paraphernalia. Mainstream the "Military Courts" in the judicial process for speedy trials and execution of criminals as well as those apprehended / under trial terrorists. Enforce the implementation of "Evidence Act" (Qanoon-e-Shahdat) in the Pakistan Penal Code procedures.

Terrorist’s Mindset: Seek to know the intentions, interests and the support system of Al-Qaida, Da’ish, ISIL, ISIS, IS, TTP and other related terrorist organizations. Understand the "Talibans" and their "Mindset" and expel them from the society instead of harboring them. Cut off their supply lines and logistics. Float awareness to segregate known from the unknown. Remember that "Terrorists" have no religion what so ever. They assess no value to the humanity. Media be geared up in a consolidated manner to retaliate against Talibanization and its spread.

National Counter Terrorism Policy: Counter Terrorism Policy (CT Policy) be formulated forth with and enforced at full swing. Demilitarization of political parties, especially at Karachi is of utmost attention. Their de-weaponization form society through proactive and preemptive operations of Pakistan Paramilitary Forces is likely to play rich dividends. Public needs to stand by these operations. Good governance and poverty redemption programs will induce national cohesion. Police reforms be introduced with uniformity in all the provinces. Make new provinces with fine blend of rural urban populace from FATA and PATA in KPK.

Communication System: Uncontrolled communication and possession of SIM cards be harnessed through the effective enforcement of Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) regulations. All the illegal international gateways be withdrawn and closed forthwith. Defaulters be dealt under rule of law.


  1. The Online Rocket Report. September 12th, 2008, Retrieved on19th December 2014.
  2. Special Report by Mark A. Schuster, M. D., Ph. D., Bradley D. Stein, M. D., M. P. H., Lisa H. Jaycox, Ph. D., Rebecca L. Collins, Ph. D., Grant N. Marshall, Ph. D., Marc N. Elliott, Ph. D., Annie J. Zhou, M. S., David E. Kanouse, Ph. D., Janina L. Morrison, A. B., and Sandra H. Berry, M. A, " A National Survey of Stress Reactions" after the, Terrorist Attacks, September the 11th, 2001
  3. The Express Tribune, (with the compliments from) International New York Times, (March 27, 2013)
  4. Report by Mahtab Hayder, The News daily (June 03, 2013)
  5. Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin, T. b. (2007). The History of Terrorism from Antiquity to Alqaida. University of California Press.London, UK.
  6. Herald Tribune, December, ( 2007)
  7. John Brennan Report, Chief Counter Terrorism Adviser; US State Govt, (2010)
  8. National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA). Report June 3, 2012
  9. UNHCR count; (2012)
  10. Dar al-’Ulum Deoband: A Brief Account of its Establishment and Background by Mufti Muhammad Zafiruddin Miftahi, English Translation by Professor Atique A. Siddiqui (M. A., Ph. D.; Aligarh),Imam Gangohi Academy of Research, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  11. "Biography of Imam Rabbani" by Maulana Ashiq Ali Ellahi
  12. W.W.Hunter, BA, LLD, ‘The Indian Musalmans", Third Edition, Turner & Company London, UK ; (1876)
  13. Darul Ulum Deoband: A Brief Account Of Its Establishment And Background By Mufti Muhammad Zafiruddin Miftahi; (2012)
  14. Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal letter to Hakim Ahmad Shuja, Mujallah "Tamir-i-Hayat" by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan (1925)
  15. "Nadwat al-Ulama" , Mawlana Sayyid Muhammad Ali Mungeri (1928)
  16. Website figures, ;( 2012)
  17. Aaron. Y. Zelin, Colonial Caliphate: The Ambitions of the 'Islamic State’, 8th July 2014, (retrieved on 17 December 2014)
  18. Kirkpatrick, David D. "ISIS Harsh Brand of Islam as Rooted in Austere-Saudi Creed". The New York Times, 24 September 2014.
  19. Wall Street Journal, September 2014.
  20. Column by Zahir Shah Sherazi, Daily Dawn, 27 December 2014.
  21. Statement by UN Secretary General Mr. Ban Ki-Moon to the High Level Security Summit on "Foreign Terrorist Fighters" at UN Security Council, New York, 24 September 2014.
  22. Timeline of Worldwide School and Mass Shootings, 2014

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