Poverty Reduction Strategy Based on the Utilization of Marine Resources to Improve the Coastal Communities Economy in West Lombok
Ida Bagus Eka Artika1, *, Ida Ayu Ketut Marini2
1Faculty of Economic, Mahasaraswati University of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
2Faculty of Agriculture, Mahasaraswati University of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
This research is located in the district of West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara with respondents composed of village officials, community leaders, administrators and members of fishing groups, totaling 60 people. The study aims to identify the obstacles to use of marine resources in coastal areas of West Lombok regency, implemented empowerment programs the marine resources potentiasl, and to formulate empowerment model appropriate ro the coastal communities of West Lombok district. The study showed the constraints faced by fishermen in exploring marine resources, and empowerment of coastal communities which are currently implemented in the district of West Lombok that consist of Coastal Community Program Development - International Fund of Agricultural Development, Enterprise Development Mina Rural (PUMP) program, and found marine resources potentials of West Lombok. Results of the research is the strategy of capacity building both capacity fishermen individually and institutionally (groups of fishermen) to strengthen the bargaining power of fishermen against moneylenders and middlemen fish, strengthening access to banking as a provider of capital, training course fresh fish processing into processed foods with greater value and not easily damaged, and the fishermen skills training programs.
Coastal Community, Marine Resources, Poverty Reduction
Received: November 12, 2016
Accepted: December 21, 2016
Published online: January 9, 2017
@ 2016 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Poverty in most of the coastal areas of Indonesia is an irony, considering that Indonesia is an archipelago with a coastline of over 81,000 km and the number of islands around 17,504 large and small islands . The Indonesian government acknowledged that development policies in the marine and fisheries sector has not managed to resolve the problem of poverty is fundamentally, among other infrastructure of fishing ports and fish marketsin various regions have not contributed satisfactorily in improving the welfare of fishermen , for example, place fish auctionwhich is aimed at encouraging fair market mechanism with the determination of the upper limit and lower limit of the price of fish for the purpose of improving the welfare of fishermen, in fact in some areas TPI instead become a vehicle for the domination or oppression on fishing .
Difficulties to improve the welfare of traditional fishermen, besides influenced by a number of internal weaknesses, as well as the influence of external factors. Limited education, lack of opportunities for access and control of more modern technology and not having sufficient capital are internal factors that often complicate efforts to empower the lives of traditional fishermen. In addition a number of external factors such as the limited potential of marine resources which can be utilized fishing, competition intensifies, the market mechanism, the bargaining position of fishermen in the presence of middlemen, state of the infrastructure of fishing ports and the jurisdiction of the autonomous region is an extra burden would further aggravate the situation , West Lombok regency, is one of the administrative region of West Nusa Tenggara province, which consists of 10 sub-districts and 5 districts has a coastline of 192 km, with a sea area of 1382.4 km2, and has 23 small islands . The development of marine fish production, as one important indicator of the main marine resource utilization for 5 years between 2010 to 2014 in West Lombok district, a declining trend, then increased in the last 2 years. In 2010 the sea fish production in West Lombok regency reached 8073.40 tons, then declined to 7796.20 tons in 2011, then in 2012 to 7277.10 tons, then there is an increase in 2013 to 8449.30 tons and in in 2014, increased again to 10 381 tons. .
Definition of poverty broadly be divided into two, namely the relative poverty and absolute poverty .
a. Relative poverty is expressed by how many percent of the national income which are received by the group of people with a certain income class compared to the proportion of national income received by the group of people with more income classes.
b. While absolute poverty is defined as a situation where the absolute level of income of a person is not sufficient to meet their basic needs such as food, clothing, housing, health and education. The apparent consumption expressed quantitatively and or in cash based on the price in a given year. The World Bank poverty line size with a value of US $ 50 per capita per year for rural areas and US $ 75 per capita per year for urban areas on the price level in 1971.
Hardiman and Midgley (1982) in  states that poverty occurs in many countries due to the underdevelopment of the country's economy as the root of the problem. Sharp, et al. (1996)  identify the causes of poverty is seen from an economic standpoint. First, in micro, poverty arise because of the inequality of resource ownership patterns which lead to an unequal distribution of income. Second, due to the low quality of human resources, which means low productivity, and in turn his wages are also low. The low quality of human resources is due to lack of education, the fate of the less fortunate, discrimination, or because of heredity. Third, poverty arise due to differences in access to capital.
The three causes of poverty that led to the theory of a vicious circle (vicious circle of poverty). Existed retardation, market imperfections, and lack of capital leads to low productivity, which leads to lower income received, then the implications for the low savings and investment, resulting in retardation, and so on.
2.2. Strategy Pillars of the Poverty Reduction
According to the Handbook of Poverty Reduction Committee , a poverty reduction strategy in Indonesia is based on four strategic pillars, namely:(a) expansion of opportunity, namely the government along with the private and public sectors creating employment and business opportunities for the poor;(b) The increase in participation, namely the government, the private sector and the wider community mobilize the poor to participate more actively in the development of economic, social and political as well as the control of decisions affecting their interests, aspirations and to identify problems and needs;(c) Increased capacity, namely the government, private sector and communities improve the capacity or ability of the poor to be able to work and try to be more productive and fight for their interests;(d) social protection, namely the government through public policies encourage the private sector and the community to provide protection and security for the poor, the main group of the poorest, (the poor, the elderly, abandoned children, disabled) and poor people caused by natural disasters, the negative impact of the economic crisis and social conflict.
2.3. Coastal Communities Poverty
Compared with agrarian villages, coastal villages in Indonesia is generally a structural pockets of chronic poverty. Most of the fishing communities who live on the coast generally have the welfare of living isvery low and erratic. Difficulty address the needs of everyday life and poverty in coastal villages have made the people of this region have to bear the burden of hard living, struggling with a debt trap that never seem endless and can not be ensured also when it will end .
One of the poor in rural areas, especially in the fishing village are those belonging to the category of small fishermen who live in isolated areas with natural resource conditions and people are less favorable. As a result of these limitations, the fisheries and labor productivity is relatively low and the income generated is also low which caused his life to be less fortunate. According to Prayitno and Santoso (1996) in Miharsa  The poverty problem arises because there is a group of people who are structurally does not have adequate opportunity and the ability to attain a decent life, so it should recognize the benefits other communities in meeting the needs of life.
As with other communities, fishing communities face a number of political, social and economic complex is as follows : (1) poverty, social inequality and economic pressures that come at any time, (2) lack of access to capital, technology and markets that affect the dynamics of the business, (3) weakness of institutional function of socio-economic, (4) the quality of human resources is low as a result of limited access to education, health and public services, (5) degradation of environmental resources both in coastal areas, sea and small islands, and (6) not strong maritime-oriented policy as the main pillar of national development.
2.4. Coastal Communities Empowerment
Number of coastal communities living below the poverty line is quite large and it must be addressed with the development of intervention programs, such as the Coastal Community Economic Empowerment Program (PEMP) of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries . In coastal villages, a number of studies that have been conducted by the researchers found that poverty alleviation programs and programs for the improvement of the lives of fishermen largely yet to achieve maximum results. Providing assistance revolving credit often jammed halfway, poverty reduction programs initiated also just good on the level of the plan, while the aid boat or motor boat engines are packed in packages of fisheries modernization program also failed to improve the lives of fishermen. Even ironic, not least government aid programs actually fell on those who really do not deserve it so that it becomes counter-productive .
3.1. Research Kind and Approach
This research is a descriptive study of an object with the aim to provide a set of practical information to the policy makers. Consequently this study more or ekplanasi explain, analyze data and ultimately resulted in a number of practical recommendations that still need further study to find the best solution . According to Nazir , the purpose of descriptive research is to create a description, picture or painting in systematic, factual and accurate information on the facts, nature and the relationship between the phenomenons investigated.
This study uses a qualitative approach, the research that produced the data in the form of spoken or written and observable behavior of people (subject) itself . Furthermore SWOT analysis is done, tofind a poverty reduction strategy of the fishing communities, both individually and institutionally targeted in the coastal community empowerment.
In qualitative research, do not use the term population, because qualitative research departs from particular cases that exist in certain social situations and the study results do not apply to the population, but is transferred to another place in social situations that have similar situations in the cases studied . Keynote Speaker this study are: village officials, community leaders, administrators and members of the fishing group selected so as to be able to provide the necessary information. Number of speakers in this studies as many as 60 people, respectively 20 in each sub-district.
3.3. Techniques and Tools of Data Collection
a. In-depth interviews (in-depth interviewing), namely the question and answer directly to the selected respondents based on the data collection tools in the form of a list of questions that had been prepared in advance.
b. Observation or direct observation is the way of collectingdata by using eye without the help of another standard tool for this purpose .
c. Focus group discussions (Focus Group Discussion), namely the collection of information through focus group discussions, invited several interested parties, namely the village officials, community leaders, groups of fishermen, members of groups of fishermen and other relevant parties.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Profile of Income and Obstacles to Savings
Income of respondent in the last month (July 2016) ranged between Rp.1.000.000, - up to Rp.5.000.000, - or more, with most income between Rp. 3,000,000 to Rp.3,999,999, as many as 18 people (40%), followed by income range between Rp.2,000,000 up to Rp.2.999.999, - as much as 13 respondents (28.9%) and revenue between Rp.1.000.000 up to Rp.1,999,999, - were 9 people (20%). While respondents who earn over Rp.4.000.000, - by 5 respondents as many as 2 (4.44%) between Rp.4.000.000 income up to Rp.4,999,999, and 3 (6.66%) income above Rp.5.000.000, - Fishermen income above Rp.5.000.000, - is the owner of the fishing nets or boat / canoe, because they get the results more than the fishermen who do not have nets or boat. Working patterns fishermen for fishing conducted in groups with members between 10-14 people, where the owner of the canoe / boat and net owners get the results more than the other group members.
From the interviews conducted, it turns out there is no one who sets aside his income in one month to save for various reasons, among others: (a) for all of its income to meet basic needs, (b) the feast that requires money relative plenty, (c) money is used again for the next day at sea capital, (d) to pay the school fees, (e) to pay the debt, and (f) does not want to save money to the bank for the amount of money is relatively small.
4.2. Obstacles in Utilizing Marine Resources
Results of extracting information in all coastal villages research sites against the respondent with the criteria village officials and community leaders, as well as the respondent group of fishermen, to explore the data through interviews conducted in depth (in-depth interviews), the constraints faced by fishermen in harness marine resources for their livelihoods, namely: (a) weather conditions can be unpredictable, (b) the change of season fish, (c) lack of capital, (d) physical condition is in decline, thereby affecting the activity and productivity, (e) the equipment used is simple and traditional, (f) the catchment area is limited, (g) the level of education of fishermen is low, (h) fish sold is still a fresh fish (unprocessed), (i) the price of fish is low and weak freshwater fishermen to fish buyer, (j) does not have the skills in processing fresh fish to processed foods higher value, (k) a shift in the orientation of jobs young people in coastal areas, to the tourism sector or type of pekerjaana other, (l) non-functioning of the place fish auction, (m) of government aid is uneven and unsustainable.
4.3. Identification of the Community Empowerment Program Executed
West Lombok regency, is one of the districts that have coastal areas which get program empowering coastal communities from Coastal Community Development Program - International Fund for Agricultural (CCPD - IFAD) is an international financial institution under the auspices of UN Special handle community development projects in the coastal area, conducted since 2013, through programs such as community development assistance fishing gear (canoes, outboard engines, nets), the development of infrastructure to support the development of tourism destinations in coastal areas, coaching a group of fishermen wives, and others.
In addition to the program of CCPD - IPAD, Rural Combination Business Development (PUMP) Program have also been implemented in West Lombok regency, as a form of empowerment of coastal communitiesthat are funded from the state budget, through the National Program for Community Empowerment Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (PNPM Mandiri KP). PNPM Mandiri KP is an empowerment activities such efforts by facilitating business development assistance to fish farmers in the container Fish Farmers Group (Pokdakan). Pokdakanis a public institution marine and fisheries executive PUMP-PB for channeling capital assistance for members. To achieve maximum results in the implementation of the PUMP-PB, Pokdakan accompanied by associate personnel as well as increased skills.
4.4. Potential of Marine Resources in Improving Economy
Potential of marine resources in West Lombok district is very diverse as a source of livelihood of people living on the coast, among which are capture fisheries, seaweed, pearl oysters, sea cucumbers, aquaculture ponds, salt business people, and potential as a tourist destination beach. The resource potential has been largely explored by the community for the benefit of their livelihood, with the support of the government through empowerment programs for coastal communities. Potential of marine resources in their respective research areas, as follows:
4.4.1. West Batulayar Village
Potential of marine resources in the village of West Batulayar used as the main livelihood of the people is the capture fisheries. The potentials such as seaweed farming, aquaculture, fish cages have not been utilized by the community, because most of the coastal areas Batulayar West Village is an area of development of coastal tourist destinations, as a supporter of Senggigi tourist development.
4.4.2. Lembar Village
Lembar is a village that has potentials of coastal marine resources, among others: capture fisheries, aquaculture, salt business people, with cage fish farming, and also cultivation of seaweed. In addition, in the village arelocated both sea ferry ports and ship freight harbor, as the center of economic development.
4.4.3. West Sekotong Village
West Sekotong is a village with a relatively long coastal region, which has potential of marine resources, among others: capture fisheries, aquaculture, salt business people, cultured pearls, sea cucumber, seaweed and fish farming with cage. West Sekotong village area with its relatively long coastal region, has abundant marine resources and can still be explored for the increased welfare of coastal communities.
4.5. SWOT Analysis and Policy Formulation Model
Preparation of alternative models of poverty reduction for coastal communities in the study area in need of environmental analysis, in the form of a SWOT analysis. Results extracting information obtained from respondenpenelitian conducted through interviews and field observations considered adequate as a material to conduct a SWOT analysis to identify strategies and models of poverty alleviation programs for coastal communities in the study area. SWOT analysis based on the results of the assessment aspects of internal and external environment, to make the weight and score every aspect has been assessed, to determine the value of each indicator, using tables of EFAS (external factor analysis summary) and IFAS (internal factor analysis summary), SWOT analysis will be carried out thoroughly covers the three areas of research.
4.5.1. Internal Environmental Analysis
a. Fishermen have a high work ethic
b. Own group, as a formal institution and recognized by the government
c. Has a high spirit and a sense of mutual cooperation among members and among groups of fishermen
d. Experienced in previous occupations of fishermen
e. Sense of solidarity among the members of the group.
a. The education level of the low average fisherman
b. Economic viability, low / limited capital, have no savings
c. Having a simple and traditional equipment
d. Fish processing skills are still low
e. The bargaining power of fishermen in increasing the price of fish is still weak
f. The physical condition of diminishing
g. Does not have any other skills, as well as fishermen
4.5.2. External Environment Analysis
a. The diversity of marine resource potential that can be explored
b. Improving the skills of fresh fish into fish processing, higher-value processed
c. Their empowerment programs of coastal communities, especially fishermen.
d. The formation of fishing cooperatives
e. getting assistance
f. Job opportunities in other sectors
a. Erratic weather factors
b. High risk factors at work as fishermen
c. Their bad season fish
d. Revenue erratic
e. Difficulty accessing bank as a source of capital
f. The reluctance of the younger generation to pursue professions fisherman
4.5.3. Strategic Position of Fisherman and Their Group
SWOT Analysis generate strategies that fit the conditions of the fishermen and fishing groups, as in the following figure 1:
Note: Mark: Fishermen Group Strategic Position
By looking at the results of the evaluation of the strategic position of the internal environment and the external environment, the strategic position of fishing groups are in quadrant supporting turn around strategy, namely to overcome weaknesses in order to achieve opportunities.
At the position of turn around strategy, elaboration of programs and objectives can be formulated particularly those related to poverty reduction strategies in coastal communities in the study area are as follows:
W-O Strategy (turn around). Overcome weaknesses to seize opportunities that exist.
Improving fishermen’s capacity through mentoring programs and guidance in accessing government empowerment programs. Increasing the capacity of fishing groups in accessing banking or capital resources. Increasing institutional capacity to improve the bargaining position of fishermen against moneylenders and middlemen fish. Training skills fresh fish into fish processing processed higher-value and durable. Skills training programs other than the main job as a fisherman.
Fishermen can access well development program implemented by the government. Make it easy for fishermen to get capital, with reasonable interest. Increasing fishermen's bargaining position through institutional / strong group. Skills fresh fish processing into various kinds of processed foods. Have the skills other than fishing.
Thefishermen poverty reduction in West Lombok Regency is by strategy of tackling fishermen weaknesses in human and institutional resources through empowerment programs, bottom-up, or adapted to the conditions in each region. It is necessary to increase fishermen capacity, especially in education through mentoring programs. The implementation of capacity building of institutions / groups of fishermen to gain access to banking in meeting the capital needed, particularly against moneylenders. The skills training programs for wives of the fishermen associated with the captured fish processing and training programs other than fishing, as a cushion in the event of shortage of fish that fishermen can find employment in other sectors.