Problems of the Utilization from Alternative Energy Resources in Azerbaijan
Shovgih Y. Goychaisky*
Baku State University, Faculty of Ecology and Soil Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan
The paper deals with the natural condition of the alternative energy resources (AER) and necessity of the problems using from CIS about them, and composition of the special maps on the basis of the large scaled researches. At the same time the problem of using from AER which will influence on evolutional process in development by effecting on economic-social, ecological conditions of the country is commented.
Azerbaijan, Alternative Energy Resources, Wind Electric Stations, Hydroenergetic Potential, Thermal Waters
Received:May 13, 2015
Accepted: June 10, 2015
Published online: July 15, 2015
@ 2015 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
The problems such as nature protection and the economical development balancing by using of the natural resources, preventing the ecological tension in some zones make necessity for use of AER. Using of the alternative energy resources is one of the important factors which will form an ecological balance base that will be created between a nature and society .
We should comment that the electroenergetics area is also involved in the reforms system which is begun to be fulfilled in an economical-social area by a country’s leadership after the Azerbaijan Republic gained the sovereignty from 1995. A principal thing is that a national program over an utilization from AER was received (2005), in Azerbaijan . Besides, for economizing on amount of carbohydrogen resources being consumed in the republic’s heat energy stations, decrease of the environment’s harms was offered facilities. There is a great need for studying of the developed countries’ experiences with the purpose of performing the national program successfully.
2. Analysis and Discussion
At the same time it is necessary to note that there is a good condition for using from the AER following types in the Azerbaijan Republic: the sun energy, an energy from the natural gas output, a wind energy, energy obtaining from the river and thermal waters and the sea ebb and flow, an energy getting from biomass and agricultural and life garbage and so on. The state structures, especially Ministry of Fuel Resources, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources and others are busy with the same area. Azerbaijan creates a situation for varied AER by possessing complex natural facilities. That’s why it is necessary to investigate the Azerbaijan Republic which is considered complicated on a side of natural condition and natural resources of the Caucasus on a large scale.
We composed a special map-scheme by paying attention to the alternative energy resources in a system of the natural condition and natural resources. We estimated 32 components in 10 score system by CIS in the physico-geographical regions as the first experiment (map-scheme1) .
As is obvious from the map that the values of the sun, wind, river, thermal waters energy and others are various over the regions. AER is evaluated by a high (5-10) score in the Coast and low-lying regions. There is a good situation in the area of the sun energy use in Azerbaijan (map-scheme 2).The corresponding scientific-research institutes, high educational establishments and others are busy with this field. Here, it is necessary to pay attention to season duration period, the air cloudiness days relief height, mountain slope exposition. An hour of the sunny days reaches 2400-32000C, an energy sum is 4000-45000C in the zone. The sun brightness is 2000-2800 hours, the sun radiation is 124-125 ccal.per.cm2 over the regions. An absolute maximum is 430, an absolute minimum is 140 in the hottest summer [7, 8]. The country’s zones are separated into 10 regions differing from each-other within the same parameters.
An efficiency of the Sun stations is different over the world regions. For. ex. it is 800-1600 kWt h. in Russia, and 1200-1400 kWt h. in France. An efficiency of the sun stations in Azerbaijan forms identity with the USA, China, Middle Asia countries by being 1500-200 kWt h. per km2[5, 6].
If we take account a presence of the great (silica) resource, however it will be possible to fulfil the photoelements production in future. Besides, the potential possibilities of the electric energy were calculated and were given in the following table by the specialists taking account the differentness of the climatic parameters over the regions.
The calculations show that the enough local raw resources exist for an establishment of the modul systems in our republic for the purpose of forming the electric energy production with the photoelectric moduls. As one of the problematical matter for today in an area of the Sun energy use in Azerbaijan is an increase of the efficiency (12-14%) as in the developed countries at present. The stations that are established on the basis of the present photoelements occupy a zone which form 2 hectares for 1mWt. At present decrease of the photoelements area capacity assumes a problematic importance for Azerbaijan (table 1) .
The Azerbaijan zone is distinguished ding to the winds power and windy days. The region is distributed into 5 zones according to the wind rate and power from 0-1m/sec., 15 m/sec. and more, i.e. from 1 score to12 scores. It must be noted that a power more than 15m/sec. of the days number is more than 150.
The strong winds mainly occupy the coastal zones (map-scheme 3).
Such strong winds are also distinguished for a height above sea level. Generally, the Azerbaijan zone possesses potential possibilities for a wind energy. In this connection a name and a place of the wind electric stations which will be built are shown (table 2) .
|Climate areas||Geographical longitu- de||Photoelectric moduls|
|I.The Great Caucasus region|
|II. The Little Caucasus region|
|III. Nakhchivan region||39,2||245,4||291,5||255,8||253,5||281,9||284,4|
|IV. Lankaran region||38,8||210,7||253,2||221,0||220,5||244,2||247,3|
|V .Central and Absheron region|
An application of the wind energy installations is real in Azerbaijan and it possesses a great perspective. The parameters of the wind-electric stations which are taken into account to be built, are given in the following map-scheme (map-scheme 4).
The first wind stations were also built by the foreign firms besides the initial samples in the Azerbaijan Republic. In 1999 two towers with a height of 30 and 40 meters were built in Absheron by Tomen firm of Japan and average yearly value of the wind rate was v=7, 9-8, 1m/sec.
|The zone of WES placement||An average rate of the wind, m/sec.||Probable power, mWt||Electrical energy production, mln. kWt h.|
|5.Caspeanside shore zone||4,2||3,2||8,3|
A technical efficiency (TE) about a wind electrical station construction of which total power is 30 mWt was prepared on the basis of the researches in the Tomen firm of the Gobustan zone. The Azerbaijan restoring Energy Resources evaluation was performed on the basis of the Europe reorganization and Development Bank contract in 2002. During the researches it was revealed that the Absheron peninsula has a large capacious potential in Absheron. A long term wind average rate is more than 6 m/sec. and this shows a presence of the good technical-economic potential for the wind energy. It was determined that a technical potential of the wind energy is in 3000 mWt, an economic potential is in 500 mWt capacity. The Azerbaijan specialists are authorizes of some installations over the sun and wind energy.
The Azerbaijan rivers take up a special position in AER. The rivers morphometric parameters are complex with their more quantity (8 thousand). A total length of the river nets is 33,6 thousand kilometers, water-collecting area is 85,5 thousand km2, a river net density is 0,39 km/km2. The rivers are energetic capacious according to their running from the high, middle, low mountainous areas and plains. Besides, an average yearly flow in the rivers is by 25 mm-2500 mm, maximum flow changes from 25 l/sec/km2 500 l/sec/km2. We should note that beginning from the Middle Ages of the last century Azerbaijan possesses an experiment to build very small electric stations not only over the little rivers but also on the irrigation ditches. But their activity was stopped later.
At present there is a great need for such water electric stations in the regions. 6 WES were built over the Kur-Araz rivers, their total power is more than 7 bln kWt. Generally, 18-20% of the WES energy production which is necessary for the whole Azerbaijan was planned. WES gives 11% of the electric energy that is produced at present.
There are large possibilities for assimilating of the hydroenergetic resources unused up to now.
The research works were carried out in such direction in the institute of "Bakihydroproject" and hydroenergetic potential of the rivers in the republic zone is 40 billion kWt h, technically a good potential is 16 billion kWt h. Its 5 billion kWt h fall to small hydroenergetics’ share.
We should note that some important problems are solved in connection with the water electricity stations construction:
-stream waters regulation;
-electricity energy production;
-new irrigative systems establishment and rational use of the soils;
-sport, tourism-recreation condition improvement.
A construction of small WES stations till 200 over the rivers and in the water economic objects of the Republic was planned. Their producing yearly electricity energy was determined in 3.2 billion kWt h. 61 constructions are intended in the nearest perspective.
At present a local energy system in Nakhchivan AR was isolated from the Azerbaijan energy system as a result of the Armenian’s aggression. Since 1990 the Nakhchivan AR energy system works with a great deficit (100-150 mWt). This deficit is prevented at the expense of the electric energy getting from IIR and Turkey energy systems. Therefore construction of the water electricity stations assumes a necessary importance in the Nakhchivan AR zone at first (middle, small, micro).
One of the newest and interesting areas in the AER zone of Azerbaijan is a using experiment from natural gas pressure potential. Use of this energy is performed by a gas distributing stations (GDS). A turbodetander installation is put for use from the pressure difference in (GDS) inns and outs. On the basis of the composing project a chance of natural gas output more than 7 bln.m3 from GDS is created. It is possible to produce 230 bln. KWt h. electricity station in a year. The electricity energy can be increased by putting turbodetander in the new underground gas storehouse. If a necessity is established at the next periods the densed air and other gases can be used, taking account the oil-gas deposits exhaustion.
There are potential possibilities for the thermal waters use in the Azerbaijan regions, especially Caspianside zones. The waters heat is by 20-400C, in some places it is more than 50-600C.
The Azerbaijan Republic zone is rich in thermal waters. They occupy the large areas consisting of the Great and Little Caucasus, Absheron peninsula, Talish mountains slopes, the Kur valley and Caspianside-Guba zone (table 3) .
|Hydrogeological regions||Water temperature (0C)||Forecasted resources, m3/day|
|Mountain-slope zones of the Great Caucasus||35,50||2000|
|Gusar foothill valleys||30-67 39-97||21654|
|Mountain-slope zones of the Little Caucasus (mineral springs)||30-74||4171|
|Talish mountain slope zone||31-43||14405|
|Lankaran lowland||44-64 42-50||7908|
|Kur valley||22-71 26-95||172466|
|Totality over the republic||245604|
Up to now the health-resort treatment thermal waters are used in the Lankaran zone and Gusarside. The mentions are very valuable not only as a heat source factor, but also according to economic and agricultural importance.
Use of the biomass and life garbages possesses good possibilities under Azerbaijan condition. A quick development of the industrial, agricultural and social service areas in our country opened new possibilities for the energy production by using of biomass. The bioresources are very many sided in our republic:
-industrial areas wastes;
-forestry and wood work areas wastes;
-agricultural products and organic combination wastes;
-life and communal areas garbages;
-wastes obtained from the areas polluted with oil and oil products;
-sewage water sources.
The researches show that the biomass substances form many parts of the production wastes composition in some fields of the economy. The interesting works are planning in the area of the technologies of getting the biogas, bioliquid and hard biomass from the same biomass substances in electricity energy production .
At the period of more than 130 years as a result of the oil-gas output and processing ten thousands hectares of the soil areas of the Absheron peninsula and other arid zones of the republic were polluted by the oil and oil processing products. Recently, our scientists’ experiments show that preparation of ecologically pure high heat capacious biobrickets from the soil and water areas polluted by million tons of oil gives a chance for preventing of the wastes as CO2 and NO2 thrown to the atmosphere besides preventing thousand hectares of the forests cutting by using of them in life, communal service areas, greenhouses in which agricultural crops are grown, little heat electricity stations.
Variety of production in the different natural-economical zones and population’s life garbages in the same regions make facilities for getting of biogas. Besides, presence of the processing areas in the Azerbaijan villages, and regional centers it is possible to produce interdistrict biogas from waste of the vegetable, fruits, cattle and yards.
It is hopeless that UAER will be one of the determinants in the economic-social development of the countries. According to the specialists’ calculation the environment wastes will reduce 0,8 kg per 1 kWt hour of energy if UAER is applied .
Though the Caspian physico-chemical condition is complicated there is a good situation for using from its water heatness, ebbs and flow energy. The water average-month heat is 22-250C in summer, 6-80C in winter. Though long and ebbs and flow variations prevent using from it in the shores the waves constantly repeat in the Caspian Sea, the wave height reaches 4-6 m in 7-8 scores of waving. The winds power and repeatation rise (map-scheme 6) in the sea while going into depth. If we pay attention to the Caspian water processing with the different purposes it will be desirable to establish shore UAER complex.
The important works were performed in a field of law reception, some legislative documents, financial-organisation and other problems corresponding the national program over AER-use in Azerbaijan. The facilities are offered for the different specialists’ cooperation in the correspondence structures in order to fulfil the above-mentions successfully.
In our opinion use of AER will create facilities to perform the most important works economically using of the exhausted resources, natural environment guarding besides fulfillment of the same problem in the country for the nearest future:
1. Preparing a new scheme of the rational use from the natural resources and ecosystems protection in the country;
2. Landscapes restoration, rational organization of the guarding and increase of their ecological capacity;
3. A new engineering-technical service in connection with enlargement of AER-use and special machine building areas development.