International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, November 2015 Publish Date: Sep. 18, 2015 Pages: 216-221

Vegetation Cover and Medidcinal Use of Chitraokoot Kamadgiri Hill Plants

Arpana Mishra*

Department of Botany, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya University, Chitrakoot, SATNA (M.P.), India


Chitrakoot is a place of religious, cultural, historical and archaeological importance, situated in the Bundelkhand region. The place is believed to have been the abode of Lord Ram, Sita and Laxman during their exile. Chitrakoot as an eminently holy place inhabited by the great sages, abounding in monkeys, bears and various other kinds of fauna and flora. Totally 159 (Herb 107, tree 25, climber 17 and shrub 10) species were recorded in survey and studies on some medicinal plant of Kamadgiri hill.


Chitrakoot, Herb, Shrub, Tree

1. Introduction

Kamadgiri is the main holy place of Chitrakoot. The sanskrit word 'Kamadgiri' means the mountain which fulfills all the desires. Kamadgiri, the original Chitrakoot, is a place of prime religious significance. A forested hill, it is skirted all along its base by a chain of temples and is venerated today as the holy embodiment of Rama. There is a five KM Parikrama Path around the Kamadgiri Mountain. The place is believed to have been the abode of Lord Ram, Sita and Laxman during their exile. Lord Kamtanath, another of his names, is the principal deity not only of Kamadgiri but of the whole of Chitrakoot. Chitrakoot means the 'Hill of many wonders'. Chitrakoot falls in the northern Vindhya range of mountains spread over the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The Chitrakoot region is included in the District Chitrakoot of Uttar Pradesh and the District Satna of Madhya Pradesh (District Unit Chitrakoot, National Informatics Centre).

Tulsidas, the saint-poet of hindi has spoken very reverently of this place in all his major works-Ramcharit Manas, Kavitawali, Dohawali and Vinaya Patrika. In India used approximately about 2500 species of medicinal plants which few more than 100 species serve as regular sources of medicine (Pei. 2001, Jain and Patole. 2001). Shinwaikar et. al (2004) reported that many plants have shown positive activities. A good number of plant species are being used the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery (Sikarwar et al., 2008).

Totally 84 species of plants belonging to 39 families were known to be effectively used for treating pyretics, skin, ulcer, gastrointestinal, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery diseases by the tribal and rural peoples of Chitrakoot (Mishra, 2015). Mishra (2009, 2014) recorded that ethenomedicinal properties of Lantana camara and Parthenium hysterophous. Dewedi et al (2007), Ekka and Dexit (2007) and Jain (1962) several works on ethnomedicine. 64 species of plants belonging to 37 families plants are used by the rural people treatment and cure many disease in human and animals. The drugs (flower, fruit, leaf, bark and seed) are used to develop many medicinal preparations (Mishra, 2015).

The present study was focused at the identification and determination of families and medicinal properties of Chitrakoot hill plant vegetation.

2. Materials and Methods

Study area

Chitrakoot is situated in the northern region of satna district of Madhya Pradesh and surrounded on North, Northwest and Northeast by Karwi (Chitrakoot) district of Uttar Pradesh and west by Panna district of M.P. It lies between 80 52’ to 80 73’N latitude, covering an area of 1,584 km2.

Fig. 1. Kamadgiri hill.

Vegetation surveys of Kamadgiri have been carried out during the years 2012-2014. Data were based on personal contact and observation and interview with local traditional healers and villagers of different localities of the study area. Collection of data of trees, shrubs and herbs species occurring in Kamadgiri hill. Classification of the different species of trees, shrubs and herbs Data synthesis and analysis. The plant identified by published literature.

3. Result and Discussion

3.1. Composition of Shrub Species

The observation recorded in table 1 that Verbenaceae is the dominant family having 2 shrub species. Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae having 1 species each.

Table 1. Composition of shrub species in Kamadgiri hill.

S.No. Name of the family Name of species % of Plants species
1 Malvaceae Abutilon indicum 10
2 Sterculiaceae Helicteres isora 10
3 Rhamnaceae Ziziphus nummularia 10
4 Rubiaceae Ixora coccinia 10
5 Verbenaceae Vitex negundo Lantana camara 20
6 Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum 10
7 Euphorbiaceae Securinega virosa 10
8 Apocynaceae Holarrhena pubescens 10
9 Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera 10
    Total no. of species = 10  

Table 2. Composition of herb species in Kamadgiri hill.

S. No. Name of the family Name of species % of Plants species
1 Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana 0.93
2 Cleomaceae Cleome viscosa 0.93
3 Violaceae Hybanthus enneaspermus 0.93
4 Polygalaceae Polygala arvensis, P. chinensis 1.86
5 Malvaceae Hisbiscus labatus, Sida acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. rhomboidea, Urena lobata Malvastrum coromandelianum 6.54
6 Tiliaceae Corchorus aestuans, Corchorus capsularis, C. olitorius, Triumfetta rhomboidea 3.73
7 Oxalidaceae Biophytum sensitivum 0.93
8 Fabaceae Alysicarpus bupleurifolius, A. hamosus, A. monilifer, A. vaginalis, Crotalaria medicaginea, Desmodium gangeticum, D. neomexicanum, D. triflorum, Indigofera cordifolia, I. linnae, I. linifolia, I. trita, Tephrosia pumila, T. purpurea, T. strigosa, Vigna trilobata, Zornia gibbosa 15.88
9 Caesalpiniaceae Cassia absus, C. pumila, C. obtusifolia, C. tora 3.73
10 Rubiaceae Borreria articularis, B. pusilla, Oldenlandia affinis, O. corymbosa 3.73
11 Asteraceae Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens bipinnata, Lindernia ciliate, L. crustacea, Striga angustifolia 4.67
12 Pedaliaceae Sesamum indicum 0.93
13 Martyniaceae Martynia annua 0.93
14 Acanthaceae Blepharis maderaspatensis, B.repens, Elytraria acaulis, Indoneesiella echioides, Justicia procumbens, J. simplex, Peristrophe paniculata, Rungia pectinata 7.47
15 Lamiaceae Anisomeles indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Leucas aspera, Nepeta hindostana, Ocimum basilicum, O. canum, 5.60
16 Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia diffusa 0.93
17 Amaranthaceae  Achyranthes aspera, A. bidentata, Aerva sanguinolenta, Alternanthera pungens, Amaranthus spinosus, A. viridis, Digera muricata, Gompherena celosioides, Pupalia lappacea 8.41
18 Euphorbiaceae Acalypha indica, A. ciliate, Euphorbia chamaesyce, E. hirta, E.hypericifolia, Phyllanthus amarus, P. fraternus, P. urinaria, P. virgatus 8.41
19 Hypoxidaceae Curculigo orchioides 0.93
20 Commelinaceae Commelina bengalensis, C. hasskarlii, C. paludosa, C. longifolia, C. suffruticosa, Cyanotis cristata, Murdannia nudiflora, Blumea lacera, Cotula anthemoides, Emilia sonchifolia, Parthenium hysterophorus, Sonchus asper, Tridax procumbens, Vernonia cinerea, Xanthium strumarium 14.01
21 Convolvulaceae Cuscuta campestris, Evolvulus alsinoides, E. nummularius 2.80
22 Solanaceae Physalis minima, Solanum incanum, S. nigrum, S. virginianum 3.73
23 Scrophulariaceae Lindenbergia indica 0.93
24 Gentianaceae Enicostemma hyssopifolium 0.93
    Total no. of species = 107  


Fig. 2. Shrub species in Kamadgiri hill.

3.2. Composition of Herb Species

The table 2 data indicate that the family Fabaceae is the dominant herb family having 17 species. Commelinaceae having 15 species. Euphorbiaceae having 9 species. Acanthaceae 8 and Lamiaceae having 6 species. Amaranthaceae having 9 species. Malvaceae 7 and Asteraceae having 5 species. Tiliaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae having 4 each. Convolvulaceae having 3 species and Papaveraceae, Cleomaceae, Violaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pedaliaceae, Martyniaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Gentianaceae having 1 each.

Fig. 3. Trees species in Kamadgiri hill.

3.3. Composition of Trees Species

The table 3 data indicate that Moraceae is the dominant family having 5 trees species. Mimosaceae and Rubiaceae having 3 species. Rutaceae and Caesalpiniaceae having 2 species. Anacardiaceae, Ulmaceae, Bombacaceae Sterculiaceae, Meliaceae, Celastraceae, Sapindaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae having 1 species each.

Table 3. Composition of trees species in Kamadgiri hill.

S. No. Name of the family Name of species % of Plants species
1 Anacardiaceae Lannea coromandelica 4.0
2 Ulmaceae Holoptelea integrifolia 4.0
3 Bombacaceae Bombax ceiba 4.0
4 Sterculiaceae Sterculia urens 4.0
5 Rutaceae Aegle marmelos, Limonia acidissima 8.0
6 Meliaceae Azadirachta indica1 4.0
7 Celastraceae Cassine glauca 4.0
8 Sapindaceae Schleichera oleosa 4.0
9 Moraceae Ficus benghalensis, F. mollis, F. racemosa, F. religiosa,F. virens 20
10 Caesalpiniaceae Bauhinia racemosa, Cassia fistula 8.0
11 Mimosaceae Acacia leucophloea, Albizia lebbeck, A. odoratissima 12
12 Rubiaceae Gardenia latifolia, Haldina cordifolia, Mitragyna parviflora 12
13 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia neriifoliaj 4.0
14 Fabaceae Pobnbngamia pinnata 4.0
15 Flacourtiaceae Flacourtia indica 4.0
    Total no. of species = 25  

3.4. Composition of Climber Species

The observation recorded that in table 4 Cucurbetaceae and Convolvulaceae family is the dominant family having 4 climber species. Menispermaceae having 3 species. Vitaceae, Fabaceae and Asclepiadaceae having 2 climber species each.

Table 4.Composition of climber species in Kamadgiri hill.

S.No. Name of the family Name of species % of Plants species
1 Menispermaceae Cocculus hirsutus, Stephania glabra, Tinospora cordifolia 17.64
2 Vitaceae Ampelocissus latifolia, Cayratia trifolia 11.76
3 Fabaceae Butea superba, Teramnus labialis 11.76
4 Cucurbetaceae Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Momordica dioica, Trichosanthes bracteata 23.5
5 Convolvulaceae Ipomoea obscura, I. pes-tigridis, I. sinensis, I. sindica 23.5
6 Asclepiadaceae Gymnema sylvestre, Hemidesmus indicus 11.76
    Total no. of species = 17  

Fig. 4. Climber species in hill.

The fig. 5 showing that a total of 159 (107 herb, 25 Tree, 17 Climber and 10 Shurb) species are found in composition of Chitraokoot hill. Some plants are used by the rural people treatment and cure for many disease in human and animals (Table - 5).

Fig. 5. No. of herb, shrub, tree and climber species in Kamadgiri hill.

Table 5. Some enthenomedicinal plants , part used for the treatment of different disease.

S.No Botanical name Local name Name of family Habit plant part used / medicinal uses
1 Tinospora cordifolia Guluchi Menispermaceae Climber Whole plant / Diabetes, Jaundice, Liver
2. Argemone mexicana Ghumaiya Papaveraceae Herb Flower / Fever and Dysentery
3. Abutilon indicum Country mallow Malvaceae Shrub Leaves / Diarrhoea
4 Sida acuta Sida Malvaceae Herb Root and Leaves / Antipyretic, Nervous and Urinary tonic
5 Sida cordata Sida Malvaceae Herb Leaves / Hay fever, asthma, antibacterial
6   Sida cordifolia Sida Malvaceae Herb Leaves / Hay fever, asthma, antibacterial
7 Urena lobata Mpuruza Malvaceae Herb Root / Hydrophobia
8 Tephrosia purpurea, Sarphonka, Ramsar Fabaceae small annual herb Roots and leaves / Fever, asthma
9 Cassia fistula Amaltas Fabaceae Tree Seed, Fruit pulp / malarial fever, loose motion
10. Butea monosperma Dhak, Palas Fabaceae deciduous tree Wood, flower / snake bite, itch and eczema, worm ring, regulate menstrual cycle
11. Anogeissus latifolia Dhao Combretaceae deciduous tree stem bark / snake bite, diarrhoea
12. Anogeissus pendula Kardhai Combretaceae Deciduous trees or shrubs Seed, bark / dysentery
13 Ocimum basilicum Tulasi Lamiaceae Herb Leaves/ Eczema, Fever, asthma
14. Justicia ocumbens Bakus Acanthaceae Herb Leaves / Eczema
15. Anogeissus latifolia Dhawa Combretaceae Tree Bark / Diarrhoea
16. Helicteres isora Marorphalin Sterculiaceae Shrub Fruit / Gastrointestinal dieses
17. Evolvulus alsinoides Sankhapushpi Convolvulaceae. Herbs perennial Whole plants/prevent bleeding.
18 Wrightia tinctoria Safed Korea Apocynaceae Tree Seed / Diabetes
19 Holarrhena pubescens Kutaja Apocynaceae Shrub Leaves / Diarrhoea
20 Holoptelia integrifolia Chilbil Ulmaceae deciduous tree Leaves, wood, bark / ring-warm, gout, totem
21 Vitex negundo Negad Verbenaceae Shrub Leaves, Fruit pulp / joint pain, paralysis
22 Lantana camara Ghaneri Verbenaceae Shrub Twigs, leaves, root/ cuts, wounds and thatching
23 Calotropis procera Aak Asclepiadaceae Herb Root, flower, Leaf/ itch, eczema, Asthama and Swelling
24 Gymnema sylvestre Gudmar Asclepiadaceae Climber Leaves / Diabetes
25 Hemidesmus indicus Indian Sarsaparilla Asclepiadaceae Climber Leaves / Antidiarrhoeal, mucoprotective, Antiulcer
26 Lannea coromandelica Dumpidi Anacardiaceae Tree Bark / Cuts, wounds, diabetes and leprosy
27 Achyranthes aspera, Apamarg, Latjira Amaranthaceae Herb Whole plant / fever
28 Holarrhena sp. Kutaj Apocynaceae Tree root bark / Given to goat & Cow for yielding milk, dysentery
29 Phyllanthus amarus Usiri Euphorbiaceae Herb Leaf, Fruit / Tridosa, Jaundice, Peptic
30 Azadirachta indica, Neem Meliaceae Tree Leaves/ intestinal worms and skin disorder
31 Ficus benghalensis Bargad Moraceae Very large tree Arial roots, woo / Dysentery
32 Ficus racemosa Umber, Umar Moraceae evergreen tree Latex, wood, fruit / skin disease, dysentery and diabetes
33 Ficus religiosa, Pipal Moraceae evergreen tree Plant / stop bleeding, Totem,
34 Acalypha indica Kuppi, Khokli Euphorbiaceae   Leaves/Eczema
35 Tinospora cordifolia Gurich Minispermaceae evergreen tree Leaves/malarial fever, diabetes M
36 Eugenia jambolana Jamun myrtaceae. evergreen tree Leaves, fruit/ Pyorrhea, diabetes
37 Ixora coccinia Kaya Rubiaceae Shrub Flower / Eczema
38 Helicteres isora Marod fali Sterculiaceae Herb Fruits/ stomach ache
39 Datura innoxia Dhatura Solanaceae annual shrub Fruits/Itch
40 Solanum nigrum Makoy Solanaceae Herb Fruit / joint pain
41 Solanum virginians Bhatkataiya Solanaceae herb Seed / joint pain
42 Cynodon dactylon Doob Ghas Poaceae. small perennial creeping grass Hole plant/Wounds, diarrhea, vomiting , itch and eczema

4. Conclusion

Present study showing that a total of 159 (107 herb, 25 Tree, 17 Climber and 10 Shurb) species are found in composition of Chitraokoot hill. Some plants are used by the rural people treatment and cure for many disease in human and animals. Some of the plants reported in earlier study not found due to grazing by animals or environmental stress.


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