Evaluation of Gentian Violet and Copper Sulphate as Fungi Inhibitor in Broiler Diet
Shirin Sultana1, Md. Mostafizer Rahman2, Md. Zulfekar Ali3, *
1Department of Livestock Services, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Departmentof Microbiology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
3Nourish Poultry Diagnostic Laboratory, Bogra, Bangladesh
Total sixty four straight run broiler chicks of two daysold were fed a control diet and diet supplemented with Fungi inhibitor (FI): Gentian violet (GV), Copper sulphate (CS), GV+CSto evaluate the effect of dietary FI on the performance characteristics of broiler. The levels of GV, CS and GV+CS were 0.05%, 0.06% and 0.025%+0.06%, respectively. Dietary FI did not alter the growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and survivability. However, the use of CS and GV+CS improved growth rate and feed utilization to some extent. Dietary FI protected the liver and gizzard enlargement. The FI supplementation was effective in improving dressing yield and therefore, increased profitability. The CS appeared to be the more effective FI than GV. It was concluded that supplementation of CS to diets would decrease the feed cost per kg live broilers and may increase meat yield and profitability.
Gentian Violet, Broiler, Feed
Received: June 23, 2015
Accepted: July 1, 2015
Published online: July 13, 2015
@ 2015 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Antifungal agents used to prevent fungal growth have no effect on the toxin already formed. The main types of mold inhibitors are: Organic acids e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, benzoic acid, formic acid, lactic acid and sorbic acid (Sherwood and Puberdy, 1974; Suttajit, 2002). Salts of organic acids e.g. sodium or calcium proprionate and potassium sorbate. Generally the acid form as a mold inhibitor is more effective than its corresponding salt (Jones et al., 1994). The critical concentrations of all these acids, whether used singly or in combination was found to be between 0.1 and 1% W/W. Below 0.1% the fungus was able to develop (Sherwood and Peberdy, 1974). According to Herting and Drury (1974) propionic and formic acids are effective antifungal agents or corn, grain sorghum, wheat, oats, barley and soybeans. Propionic acid was found by Sauer and Burroughs (1974) to be effective as a mold inhibitor for corn and grain sorghum at moisture contents of 18 to 24%, isobutyric, acetic and formic acids followed, in order. The particular value of propionic acid as a preservative stems from its low order of toxicity towards human and other animals. In fact, it is a normal component of the digestive tract of ruminants (Kiessling and Pettersson, 1991). A positive effect of this was observed by Jones et al. (1970) when they reported that propionic acid, besides being an effective preservative of high-moisture corn, also brought about an improvement in animal performance. Grains treated with propionic acid can be used only for livestock and poultry feeding (Jacobsen et al., 1993). Mold inhibitors (sodium or calcium propionate or organic acids) are added to stored grains to prevent further development of molds at levels of 0.2 to 0.25% to feeds with 14-17% moisture and 0.5 to 0.6% to feeds with 18-24% moisture.
Cereals can be highly susceptible to fungal growth when still in the field, during storage and in processing (Stoloff, 1976). Small grains (wheat, sorghum, oats, rye, barley and rice) unless abused in storage or after preparation, appear to be less susceptible to mycotoxin formation than are large grains, such as maize. The main mycotoxins that have been detected in cereals in regular occurrences are the aflatoxins, ochratoxin-A, zearalenenone, T₂ toxin, critinin and deoxynivalenol (Pathree and Mirocha, 1979; Vensoder and Hesseltine, 1981).The fungal metabolites or mycotoxins in poultry feed (Hamilton, 1987) may reduce nutritive value by using of thiamin or other nutrient or by reducing digestibility (Fritz et al., 1973), decreased body weight, serum protein (Huff et al., 1992), feed efficiency and increased mortality. Decreased relative weight of the liver, kidney, proventriculus (Huff et al., 1992), gizzard (Kubena et al., 1989) and heart (Huff et al., 1988) were also found in birds fed fungus contaminated feed. The inhibition process to inhibit the contamination of poultry feed by mycotoxin to ensure the optimum poultry production could be carried by heat treatment and by application of different fungi inhibitors. By manipulation of heat we cannot successfully destroy the aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ which are so much harmful mycotoxin for poultry and other animals. Chemical method seems to be most suitable to inhibit the fungi growth. Various chemical compounds that used as fungi inhibitors are sorbic acid, copper sulphate, propionic acid, calcium propionate compounds, gentian violet and crystal violet (Romoser et al., 1979, Paster et al., 1979). The comparative economic feasibility of using different fungi inhibitors is also an area of obvious interest needed to be studied thoroughly. In view of the above circumstance, the present study was designed to quantify the effects of dietary fungi inhibitors on the broiler performance and to assess on the cost of using two different fungi inhibitors i.e. gentian violet and copper sulphate in the diet of broiler under Bangladesh condition.
2. Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of using dietary gentian, violet and copper sulphate as fungi inhibitor on broiler performance. A total of 64 two-day-old ISA Vedette chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments having two replications each for treatment. Two experimental diets (broiler starter and finisher) were formulated with the locally available feed ingredients. Broiler starter diet (per kg DM basis ME 3008.25 kcal, CP 218.54 g, Ca 13.09 g, TP 8.28 g, Lysine 14.36 g and methionine + Cysteine 8.98 g) and finisher diet (per kg DM basis ME 2976.22 kcal, CP 200.00 g, Ca 9.75 g, TP 8.32 g, Lysine 11.46 g and methionine + Cysteine 8.32 g) were provided between 2 to 30 days and 30 to 44 days of age, respectively. Total feed was divided into 4 equal parts. No fungi inhibitors were added to first part (T₁) to make it control diet. Gentian violet (0.05%) mixed with the second part (T₂). Copper sulphate (0.06%) was incorporated with the 3rd (T₃). Gentian violet (0.025%) and copper sulphate (0.06%) was mixed with the last part (T₄). All the diets were then stored for 21 days in gunny bags. The whole procedure was followed for starter and finisher diets. The floor space per birds was 540 cm². Feeder and waterer spaces per birds were 9 cm and 7.5 cm respectively. Feed and water were supplied adlibitum and all birds were vaccinated against Ranikhet and Gamboro disease as per schedule. At the end of the experiment, 2 representative broilers (one male and one female) weighing average of the flock were randomly selected from each replicate and faster for 12 hours prior to slaughter to collect meat yield records. Initial chick weight, mortality, weekly feed intake and weight gain records were kept replication wise. Production number was calculated. Before statistical analysis data on weight of blood, father, liver, gizzard, abdominal fat, shank and heart and also dressed weight were transformed into percentages of the respective live weights. Feed cost calculated on the basis of market price of the ingredients.
All recorded and calculated data were analysed for ANOVA (Steel and Torrie, 1960) using a Completely Randomized design (CRD). Least Significant Differences (Feed, 1993) were calculated for significant differences to compare mean values among treatments, except for the dressing yield parameters, where data were for a 2 (sex) x 4 (diet) factorial experiment in a CRD.
3. Results and Discussion
No significant (P>0.05) differences were found among the diets in case of body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. Survivability was similar (P > 0.05) on all diets. Feed cost per kg live broiler was not affected for diets with fungi-inhibiter. Irrespective of sex, live weight was significantly (P<0.01) influenced by dietary fungi-inhibiter. Live weight was higher on control and gentian violet than that on copper sulphate and gentian violet + copper sulphate diets. Gizzard weight was also significantly altered by fungi inhibitor in both sexes. The gizzard was largest on control intermediate on gentian violet and smallest on copper sulphate and gentian violet + copper sulphate diets. The dressing yield was highest on copper sulphate and gentian violet + copper sulphate diets, intermediate on gentian violet and lowest on control.
The lack of overall effect of dietary fungi inhibitor on weight gain in the present study (Table-1) contradicts with the findings of Bartov (1985), but the results obtained for the effect of gentian violet agree with the findings of Stewart et al., (1980) and Anjum et al., (1992). The result indicates that feed intake was not altered by different dietary fungi inhibitor at which agree with the result obtained for gentian violet Stewart et al., (1977) and Cross and Hughes (1976). The lack of influence of dietary fungi inhibitor on feed conversion found at all ages that is supported by Stewart et al., (1985) and Dilworth et al., (1979). The present findings contradict with Bartov (1980) who reported that supplementation of copper sulphate significantly improved feed conversion sufficiently. Survivability of birds fed on different fungi inhibitor diets as obtained in the present study (Table-1) is supported by Cross and Hughes (1976). They reported that dietary gentian violet had no effect on mortality. The result suggests that a slightly increased live weight on diet with copper sulphate and gentian violet + copper sulphate was the reason for a lower cost per kg live weight gain on the diet. In that respect copper sulphate diet seemed to be most efficient. The result has shown in Table-2 impress that addition of fungi inhibitor to diets significantly influenced live weight and gizzard weight. Liver and gizzard weight were higher on control diet. Enlarged liver and gizzard on control diet may be an indication of the dietary fungi activity (Kubena et al., 1989 and Huff et al., 1988) on those organs, which was perhaps minimized on diets with fungi inhibitors. Combination of gentian violet + copper sulphate was found to more effective in combating liver and gizzard enlargement than either of gentian violet or copper sulphate alone. Supplementation of dietary fungi inhibitor increased dressed weight significantly (P<0.05). The fungi inhibited reduced serum protein (Mani et al., 1992) might have impaired protein accretion in muscles with a consequent reduction in meat of broilers on control diet.
|Parameters||Control(n=16)||GV (n=16)||CS(n=16)||GV+CS (n=16)||LSD values and significance|
|Average body weight (g/ bird)||1616.52||1463.93||1590.26||1673.21||NS|
|Feed intake (g/ bird)||3569.29||3019.02||3395.81||3337.63||NS|
|Feed conversion efficiency||2.29||2.15||2.15||2.07||NS|
|Survivability ( % )||93.75||93.75||87.50||93.75||NS|
|Feed cost/ broiler||46.52||45.88||44.19||46.99||NS|
|Feed cost/ kg live broiler||28.81ab||31.31a||26.92b||28.07b||2.55*|
(abc= bearing uncommon superscripts differ at P<0.05)
NS = Non-significant,*Significant at (P < 0.05),**Significant at (P < 0.01)
|Parameter||Sex||Control(n=2)||GV(n=2)||CS(n=2)||GV+CS(n=2)||Mean||LSD & Significance|
|Av. Bwt.(g/ bird)||M||1875.00||1640.00||1765.00||1860.00||1785.00||98.91**||139.881**||NS|
|Liver weight (%)||M||2.91||2.96||1.82||1.81||2.37||NS||0.46**||NS|
|Gizzard wt. (%)||M||2.05||1.89||1.82||1.81||1.89||NS||0.248*||NS|
|Abdominal fat (%)||M||0.74||0.68||0.87||0.78||0.77||NS||NS||NS|
|Shank wt. (%)||M||4.95||4.90||5.27||5.37||5.12||0.196**||NS||NS|
|Heart weight (%)||M||0.56||0.56||0.55||0.67||0.58||NS||NS||NS|
|Dressed wt. (%)||M||67.87||67.89||69.71||69.88||68.84||NS||0.186*||NS|
(abc = bearing uncommon superscripts differ at P<0.05)
M=Male, F=Female, NS=Non-significant, *Significant at (P<0.05), **Significant at (P<0.01)
The effect of using dietary fungi inhibitor was negligible on growth performance, but it is beneficial in improving physiological condition (normalization of liver and gizzard size) and meat yield. Such a lack of harmful effect on growth might have happened because the concentration of fungi in control diet was perhaps below the level to cause detrimental effect on growth. Another reason may be that the short time feeding was enough to affect the growth. Such assumptions get support from Archibald et al., (1962) in a similar study did not found any effect of unknown amount of aflatoxin on broiler chicks. Thus the use of proper fungi inhibitor in diets might help in increasing profitability entrepreneurs by improving meat yield under Bangladesh condition.