Characteristics of Minerals and Vitamin B12 by Tiger Snails, Shellfish Snow, Meretrix Meretrix
Nurjanah Nurjanah*, Asadatun Abdullah, Taufik Hidayat, Indah Yulianti
Department of Aquatic Product Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
Mineral and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients found in mollusks. The aimed study to determined the chemical composition, mineral and vitamin B12 levels in the tiger snails (Babylonia spirata L.), shellfish snow (Pholas dactylus L.), and meretrix meretrix (Meretrix meretrix L.) which represents by catched. Mineral content was determined by AAS (Atomic Absorption spectro photometry), whereas vitamin B12 was determined by HPLC method (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Protein the most abundant components in all three samples, followed by carbohydrates, ash, and fat. Proximate levels in tiger snails meat was higher than the shelfish snow and meretrix meretrix. The highed content in all three samples was sodium, followed by potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium. Tiger snails have mineral content at similar amount. Shellfish snow contains at fairly good macro minerals and minerals containing iron and zinc which greater than the meretrix meretrix and tiger snails. Selenium was not detected in all three samples. Tiger snails contain vitamin B12 for 16.58 μg/l00g, meretrix meretrix 13.74 μg/100g, and shelfiss snow 5.04 μg/100g. Tiger snails, shelfish snow, and meretrix meretrix can be a good source of minerals and vitamin B12.
Babylonia Spirata, Mineral, Shellfish, Vitamin B12
Received: March 31, 2015
Accepted: April 16, 2015
Published online: July 7, 2015
@ 2015 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY-NC license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Fishery product is one of food productions contains a lot of nutrition; those are protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin, and mineral. One of fishery products contains essential nutrition is mollusk. Mollusk, especially shellfishes, is a fishery product with animal protein with category complete protein, and contains vitamin, which is fat-soluble as well as water-soluble. Shellfish is a mineral resource, namely iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), phosphor (P) and Flour (F). The mineral from the fishery product can be absorbed by the body better than nuts and cereals. One of the vitamin contents in fishery products is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin for body contained in terrestrial food with minimum amount (Almatsier 2006).
Mollusk often caught along with demersal fishes and became a complementary catch. The lack of information regarding the nutrition in mollusk also causes less consumption demand and causes several mollusks to be complementary catch. Tiger snail, tofu shellfish, and snow shellfish are type of mollusk, which can potentially be developed, however the information regarding their nutritious are still limited.
The content of mineral and vitamin B12 in tiger snail, tofu shellfish, and show shellfish has not been identified, therefore, it is recommended to conduct a testing regarding the nutrition, mineral and vitamin B12 on those three biota in order to improve the consumption motive, identify the appropriate potential development and its use, and provide the reference of mineral and vitamin B12 resources to fulfill the society needs, either it is consumed directly or extracted as a practical supplement. This research aims to define mineral and vitamin B12 content on tiger snail, tofu shellfish and snow shellfish, which are representing the complementary catch.
2.1. Materials and Tools
The main component used in this research is the meat of tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish purchased from MuaraAngke Fish Market, Jakarta. The tools used are thermometer, analytics scale, porcelain cup, oven, desiccator, reaction tube, Erlenmeyer glass, kjeldahltube, soxhlettube, heater, decollator, buret and tanur. The mineral testing is done by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer) tools. The analysis of vitamin B12 uses HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) tools.
2.2. Scope of Research
This research is a descriptive study consists of several stages, those are sampling, morphology research, morphometric calculation, yield calculation, chemical analysis on tiger snails, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish consisting of proximate analysis (water level, fat, protein, carbohydrate, and ashes level) (AOAC 2005), mineral level analysis using AAS and Vitamin B12 level analysis with HPLC.
Third samples from each of the tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish, were taken randomly as a sample on morphology research, morphometric calculation and yield. The sample is divided into meat, offal and its shell. The sample of meat separated from its shell and its offal then tested upon its water level, fat, protein, carbohydrate, ashes, mineral and vitamin B12.
3. Result and Discussion
3.1. The Characteristic of Tiger Snail, Snow Shellfish and Tofu Shellfish
Shellfishes are filter feeder biota. The size of one biota will determine its yield size. The shellfishes’ size is affected by type and factor of growth, namely season, temperature, food, salinity, rapidness, and other environment chemical factors (Nurdin et al. 2006). The morphometric data of tiger snail, snow shellfish, and tofu shellfish were described Table 1. Tiger snail has approximately 4.16 cm length, and 2.87 cm width, 1.94 cm height and 16.6 g total weight. Snow shellfish has approximately 10,58cm length, and 3.32 cm width, 3.04 cm height and 58.1 g total weight. Tofu shellfish has approximately 4.26 cm length, and 3.60 cm width, 1.87 cm height and 20.9 g total weight.
|Parameter||Tofu Shellfish||Snow Shellfish||Tiger Snail|
|Total Weight (gram)||20.9±4.21||58.1±11.51||16.6±2.43|
The fresh tiger snail has the highest yield on its shell, which is 67.03%, yield on meat of 21.81 % and yield on offal of 11.16 %. The fresh snow shellfish has the highest yield on its shell, which is 60.64 %, yield on meat of 15.48% and yield on offal of 23.88%. The fresh tofu shellfish has the highest yield on its shell, which is 67.44%, yield on meat of 14.38% and yield on offal of 18.18% (Table 2).
|Yield||Tofu Shellfish (%)||Snow Shellfish (%)||Tiger Snail (%)|
3.2. Chemical Composition
The chemical composition of meat from tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish was described on table 3. The testing result showed that the water level contained in meat of tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish were 78.44 %, 83.78 % and 79.98%, respectively. The water level of food can be affected by the habitat or the environment of those components (Suastuti, 2009).
|Type of Nutrition||Tiger Snail (%)||Snow Shellfish(%)||Tofu Shellfish|
The greatest fat level found in tiger snail, which 0.33 %, followed by the tofu shellfish and snow shellfish with 0.24 % and 0.11 %, respectively. The protein level contained on the tiger snail was 17.38% followed by the snow shellfish and tofu shellfish with 11.37 % and 9.39 %, respectively.
This result showed that the ashes level in the tofu shellfish was bigger, which is 1.37%, compared to the ashes level in snow shellfish and tiger snail, which were 1.19% and 1.20%, respectively. On the other hand the level of carbohydrate in tiger snail was lower than snow shellfish and tofu shellfish were 2.65 %, 3.55 % and 9.02 %, respectively. The difference in chemical composition may due to the species, age, sex, available food, rate of metabolism, gonad maturity level and rate of movement (Nurjanah et al. 2005).
3.3. The Mineral Composition of Tiger Snail, Snow Shellfish and Tofu Shellfish
Mineral essence is one of components needed by living things aside from the carbohydrate, fat, protein, and vitamin, also known as an inorganic or ash level (Arifin, 2008). Mollusk is one of mineral resources. The mineral content on shellfishes is varied by the species, sex, ages, and habitat (Nurjanah et al., 1999). The minerals content in tiger snail, tofu shellfish and snow shellfish is described on table 4.
The approximate minerals content on tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish are as follows: magnesium of 3216.04 ppm, potassium of 1632.87 ppm, sodium of 662.07 ppm, calcium of 408.08 ppm and phosphor of 70.91 ppm. Tiger snail has quite balance minerals content. Tofu shellfish has biggermicro-minerals content than two other samples. The snow shellfish has good macro-minerals content and has the biggest iron and zinc mineral than two other samples, which are 121.09 ppm, and 24.60 ppm. The difference on the mineral level on those three samples is affected by the species, sex, ages, habitat, season, and available food (Nurjanah et al., 1999).
|Type of Mineral||Tiger Snail (ppm)||Tofu Shellfish (ppm)||Snow Shellfish (ppm)|
The mineral level also affected by the protein and fat level on sample. Almost all the mineral ion connected to the protein, and fat is known to affect the storing capacity on the organic metal as it has big affinity towards lipida (Nurjanah et al. 1999). Certain accumulated mineral on shellfish body is likely to decrease as the shell is increasing (Auburohim, 2006). The accumulated mineral is also affected by the saturated level of the organism in accumulating certain minerals; it can affect how much the mineral content on one organism (Cheney et al., 2007). The micro mineral level on the meat of tiger snail, tofu shellfish and snow shellfish are approximately Fe (70.91 ppm), followed by Zn (23.22 ppm), Cu (9.11 ppm) and Se is undetected. Minerals, Cu, Fe, Zn and Se were used as an anti-oxidant (Nurjanah et al., 2005).
The difference on the mineral level of an organism can be caused by the differences on the type of food consumed and the condition of its habitat. The minerals content found in a water biota is affected by its food as well as its ability to absorb the mineral content on its habitat (Suprapti, 2008).
3.4. The Vitamin B12 Composition on Tiger Snail, Snow Shellfish and Tofu Shellfish
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for body. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is one of vitamins much found on fishery products. Vitamin B12 consists of cobalt and cyanide chain. Cobalt can be found on soil and sea sediment. The sea sediment contains more cobalt due to the soil erosion factor, which finally ends up in sea (Suprapti, 2008). The eating habit of shellfishes, which is filter feeder causes cobalt on sea sediment enters the biota’s colon and converted into vitamin B12 by the help of bacteria. Vitamin B12 is needed to change folate, maintain the central neurotic system, cofactor in sintetasemetionin enzyme and homosistein enzyme, as well as smoothen the metabolism process (Almatsier, 2006). The testing results of the content of vitamin B12 on tiger snail, snow shellfish, and tofu shellfish are described in table 5.
|Content||Tiger Snail||Snow Shellfish||Tofu Shellfish||Standard of daily needs*|
|Vitamin B12 (µg/100g)||16.58||5.04||13.74||1.0|
The result shows that those three samples contain vitamin B12 with adequate amount to fulfill the daily needs of vitamin B12 for body. Vitamin B12 can be much found on fishery products, amongst others include sardine (14.4 µg/100g), bendeng (3.4 µg/100g), tuna (3.0 µg/100g), kembung (2.5 µg/100g) and shellfishes (Almatsier, 2006). Based on the data, there is a potential that those three samples can be a good source for Vitamin B12 as the amount is quite big. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is one of vitamins found in fishery products especially in filter feederbiota. This is because there is cobalt on sea sediment enters into alimentary canal on filter feederbiota. Vitamin B12 is constructed from the synthesis of bacteria on colon, which later stored in liver. Human needs vitamin B12 from outside as the vitamin B12 constructed from the synthesis of bacteria on human occurred in colon, and therefore cannot be absorbed. Human can get vitamin B12 by consuming liver, fish, kidney, egg, milk and meat (Winarno, 2008)
Tiger snail, tofu shellfish and snow shellfish are group of mollusk that has potential to be developed. The highest minerals content on those three samples is magnesium, followed by potassium, sodium, calcium and phosphor. Tiger snail has the balance mineral composition. Tiger snail contains vitamin B12 more than tofu shellfish and snow shellfish. Tiger snail, snow shellfish and tofu shellfish can be good mineral and vitamin B12 resources.